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Encyclopedia of Astrology (Nicholas deVore)
 

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Radical. 1. Pertaining to the radix, or horoscope of birth. 2. In Horary astrology, a term employed to indicate a figure which can appropriately be judged in a given matter; one that is likely to give the correct answer.

Radical Position. Said of a planet's position in a birth horoscope; as distinguished from the transitory or progressed position it occupies at a later date. v. Radix.

Radix. 1. The radical map: the horoscope of birth, the root from which everything is judged. 2. The radical or birth positions of the planets, as distinguished from their progressed or directed positions. Progressed aspects can never entirely contradict or negate a radical aspect; but must be interpreted only as modifying or mitigating the influences shown in the Radix.

Radix System. v. Directions.

Rahu. The Sanskrit name for the Dragon's Head - the Moon's North node. In Hindu mythology Rahu is a Daitya (demon) who possessed an appendage like a dragon's tail, and made himself immortal by stealing from the gods some Amrita - elixir of divine life - which they obtained by churning an ocean of milk. Unable to deprive him of his immortality, Vishnu exiled him from Earth and made of him the constellation Draco: his head called Rahu, and tail Ketu - astronomically speaking, the Moon's ascending and descending nodes. Using his appendage as a weapon, he has ever since waged a destructive war on the denouncers of his robbery, the Sun and the Moon, which he swallows during the eclipse. The fable is presumed to have a mystic or occult meaning. (v. Nodes, Moon's.)

Rapt Motion. v. Motion.

Rapt Parallel. Two bodies, which by Rapt motion are carried to a point where they are equidistant from and on opposite sides of the meridian or the horizon, are said to be in Rapt Parallel. (v. Aspects.)

Rays, Under the. In astrology a planet is "under the rays" of another when it is within orbs of an aspect. Rarely used by modern authorities.

Reception. (1) A planet posited in a sign not its own, is said to be received by the Ruler of that sign, as if one were visitor and the other host. (2) The condition in which a planet is receiving an aspect from some faster-moving planet.

Reception, Mutual. When two planets are in each other's sign or exaltation.

Recessional Directions. v. Directions.

Rectification. The process of verification or correction of the birth moment or ascendant degree of the map, by reference to known events or characteristics pertaining to the native. This may be necessitated by the inaccuracy of time-pieces; the carelessness of those whose business it should be to make a careful record of the correct moment of birth; or it may consist of a hypothetical determination of a birth-hour wholly unknown to the native. The entire subject is a matter of controversy. Some contend that it is unscientific to prove a thesis by altering the premise to fit the conclusion. Among numerous methods are: (1) the Prenatal Epoch, the Arc of the Moon's travel from its birth position to the point where it forms its first aspect, converted into time and compared with the circumstances which attended, is presumed to afford an indication of the Native's exact age, whereby to rectify the degree of the Ascendant; (2) comparisons between the house positions of the planets, and the Native's circumstances and disposition; and (3) the computing of the directions attending the first accident or illness, the death of a parent, the conferring of an honor, marriage, the birth of a child.

Argol and Morinus used a method of rectification by directions timed to an important event. Hermes observed a certain relationship between the place of the Moon at birth and the Ascendant at conception, and vice versa, out of which developed the Prenatal Epoch, as advanced by E. H. Bailey in the 'Prenatal Epoch" and Sepharial in "The Solar Epoch." Various other methods have been advanced but none has received universal acceptance.

Recurrence Cycles. Periods of time in which a conjunction of any two given planets will recur in approximately the same degree of the zodiac. These are of value, not only in the study of Cycles (q.v.) but as a means of erecting a chart for remote periods for which Ephemerides are unavailable. A fairly accurate list of recurrence cycles, follows:

................................Number of...Tropical

Planets.................Order..Conjunctions..Years

Moon-Mercury..............1..........74..........8

Moon-Venus................1..........94..........8

Moon-Mars.................1.........411.........32

..........................2........5242........410

Moon-Jupiter..............2........3467........261

Moon-Saturn...............2........4715........353

Moon-Uranus...............1........1074.........84

Moon-Neptune..............1........2149........168

Moon-Pluto................1........6562........494

Mercury-Venus.............2.........545........243

Mercury-Mars..............1.........276.........79

Mercury-Jupiter...........2.........827........474

Mercury-Saturn............1.........102.........59

Mercury-Uranus............1.........146.........85

Mercury-Neptune...........1.........682........165

Mercury-Pluto.............2........2553.......1486

Venus-Mars................1..........37.........32

..........................2........1279.......1215

Venus-Jupiter.............1..........37.........24

..........................2.........749........486

Venus-Saturn..............2.........208........235

Venus-Uranus..............2.........221........251

Venus-Neptune.............2.........443........494

Venus-Pluto...............1.........310........494

Mars-Jupiter..............2.........106........237

Mars-Saturn...............2.........228........442

Mars-Uranus...............1.........131........252

Mars-Neptune..............1.........174........331

Mars-Pluto................2.........888.......1734

Jupiter-Saturn$...........1...........3.........59.6

..........................2..........40........794.4

Jupiter-Uranus............1...........6.........83

..........................2..........97.......1340

Jupiter-Neptune...........1..........13........166

..........................2..........64........818

Jupiter-Pluto.............1..........20........249

..........................2..........59........735

Saturn-Uranus$............1...........2.........90.7

..........................2..........24.......1088.7

Saturn-Neptune............1..........23........824

..........................2..........41.......1471

Saturn-Pluto..............1#.........25........736

..........................1*.........37.......1237s.y.

Uranus-Neptune$...........1...........1........171.4

..........................2..........21.......3599.4

Uranus-Pluto$.............1...........2........254.3

..........................2..........27.......3432.8

Neptune-Pluto$............1...........1........492.3

..........................2.........147.....72,372.3

# In the zodiac of precession. * In the fixed zodiac. $ More detailed data concerning these cycles are appended to the discussion undcr Cycles.

Refranation. A term used in Horary Astrology when one of two planets applying to an aspect turns retrograde before the aspect is complete. It is taken as an indication that the matter under negotiation will not be brought to a successful conclusion.

Relative Houses. v. Houses.

Retrograde. The term applied to an apparent backward motion in the Zodiac of certain planets when decreasing in longitude as viewed from the Earth. It can be compared to the effect of a slow-moving train as viewed from another train traveling parallel to it but at a more rapid rate, wherein the slower train appears to be moving backwards. However, in the case of the celestial bodies it is not a matter of their actual speed or travel, but of the rate at which they change their angular relationship.

Retrograde planets in a birth map were anciently said to be weak or debilitated, but a more logical interpretation would seem to indicate that the influence is rendered stronger, which in the case of a malefic planet is definitely unfortunate. That it continues to retrograde for a period after birth might detract from its capacity to incite progress, but if so the extent of retardation must be judged from its relative nearness to its second station.

It is averred by some astrologers that a planet in retrograde motion partakes of the nature of the Mars end of the spectrum. This hardly appears a safe generalization, for according to the laws of spectroscopy a planet moving away from us - the distance between it and the Earth increasing - produces a slight shift of frequences toward the red end of the spectrum, and with diminishing distance a relative shift towards the red end begins immediately after the opposition of a major planet to the Sun, and continues until just before the conjunction; and that it can hardly be said to apply at all to a minor planet.

It would appear that consideration of this factor involves the direction of the planet's motion, whether toward or away from the Earth, rather than the character of the motion as either direct or retrograde. In fact it appears to have bearing on the doctrine of orientality. This Doppler displacement has been noted in observations of Venus, which indicated that a differentiation of influence should be studied as between Venus when in motion away from the Earth, and when moving toward it.

To be able to visualize and thus thoroughly understand the phenomenon of retrograde motion it is advisable to study the cycles of two groups of planets: the minor planets, those between the Earth and the Sun; and the major planets, those whose orbits lie outside that of the Earth.

Analyzing the cycle of Mercury, as typical of the orbits of the minor planets, shows this succession of phenomena:

Superior conjunction, when it passes on the far side of the Sun in direct motion, at which time it is invisible. Since thereafter it rises after the Sun and remains invisible during the daylight hours, it becomes visible only after the Sun has set in the west: the Evening Star. About fifteen days after the Superior conjunction it is at its smallest, a small circular orb.

Greatest Elongation East: Some six months later it reaches the point of the greatest distance ahead of the Sun in its counterclockwise direct motion in orbit, hence East. At this time it passes out of its gibbous phase, showing only half of its surface illuminated, yet seemingly larger and brighter because it comes closer to the Earth.

Enters Retrograde Arc: Some two weeks later it enters the arc over which it will shortly retrograde.

Maximum Brilliance as Evening Star: Even though reduced to a crescent of illumination it appears still larger, and with its elevation it remains longer above the horizon and is at its greatest brilliance.

First Station: Another two weeks and it becomes stationary, in preparation for retrograde (S.R.) motion. In another two weeks, about six days before the Inferior conjunction, it becomes a slender crescent.

Inferior Conjunction, when it passes in retrograde between the Earth and the Sun and is lost from sight in the Sun's rays. This conjunction is shorter in duration. They separate faster because Mercury's motion is opposite to the apparent motion of the Sun. In another five days it again becomes visible on the other side of the Sun, the West, when as the Morning Star it appears before sunrise as a slender crescent, but turned in the opposite direction.

Second Station: Another six days and it again becomes stationary, in preparation to resume its direct, or re-direct motion.

Maximum Brilliance as Morning Star: Some fifteen days later it is reduced to a broad crescent and is again at its brightest, now as a morning star.

Emerges from Retrograde Arc: As it advances beyond the degree of its First Station it leaves the retrograde arc and enters territory over which it will not retrograde during this cycle.

Greatest Elongation West: Although no longer in retrograde it has not yet accelerated to the extent that it equals the Sun's motion, hence it continues to increase behind the Sun in elongation and elevation for some ten or twelve days to the point of greatest elevation West just before it commences its gibbous phase.

Smallest Phase: Some seven months later, about fifteen days before the superior conjunction, it has decreased in visible size until it appears as a small but fully illuminated disc of less than one-third the diameter it had at its brightest phase. Then comes the next superior conjunction and invisibility, completing one cycle from one superior conjunction to the next.

Venus's motion is entirely similar, although the intervals are longer. Where the Mercury sidereal period is approx. 88 d. and its synodic period is 116 d. the Venus orbit of 225 days has a synodic period of 584 days.

The cycle of the major planets is not greatly different, except that at the opposition, the Sun and the planet arc on opposite sides of the Earth. Figure 2, a comparative illustration of the motion of Venus as an inside planet and Mars as an outside planet, in reference to the motion of the Earth, facilitates a ready understanding of the relationship of the orbits which produces the phenomenon known as retrograde motion.

While the Inferior Conjunctions with a minor planet, and the oppositions to a major planet always occur during the retrograde; the similarity ceases when gravitation is considered, since at the opposition of the major planet the Earth is in between, hence the planet and the Sun are exercising a gravitational pull upon the Earth from opposite sides; while at both conjunctions of a minor planet the gravitational pull from the Sun and the planet are always in the same direction.

It is generally considered that a transiting planet is more likely to develop its negative qualities when it is in retrograde. That it is turning back for a recheck of ground already covered need not necessarily be bad, except for the fact that the future is held in abeyance. Some people look upon any delay as a tragedy, but the real difference has to do with whose neck is in the noose when the postponement of execution is decreed. In some cases it may mean only a temporary delay that is compensated for when the planet resumes its direct motion.

This proximity of Mars to the Earth may be one of the most important of considerations, since it considerably augments the strength of its reception - what the radio engineer calls signal strength. Wilson speaks of Mars Retrograde as Mars perigee, and attributes to it a wave of robberies, vicious murders and calamities. At the Sun-Mars opposition of August 1924 Mars was closer to the Earth than it had been for 800 years.

It should be found, however, that the period of slower motion and of increasing intensity when the transiting planet is approaching its First Station, and of slower but accelerating motion after it passes its Second Station, are important arcs, because any birth planet which falls within the arc over which the transiting planet will retrograde will receive three separate and successive accents, of the combined nature of the radical and the transiting planet.

When Mars in transit retrogrades over a birth Saturn position, it means that this is already the second transit of Mars over the birth Saturn position, and that when it resumes Redirect motion there will occur a third contact. If a contact can be expected to crystalize into an event, then three contacts can mean three events. Even if one resists the temptations, three are certainly worse than one - particularly three slow ones that linger and thus burn more deeply. There is the further and important consideration of declination to be taken into account, and a parallel of Latitude reinforcing the first or third contact may render one of them more effective even than the retrograde contact. Thus it would appear that the important differentiation of a transiting planet's influence requires the dividing of its apparent orbit into two arcs: that over which the planet will traverse but once, and that which it will traverse three times in one cycle. These two arcs might be termed the Arc of Advance, and the Arc of Retrograde. This distinction emphasizes the fact that it is not merely the slow motion of the Retrograde which is involved, or the matter of replacing steps over territory previously traversed, but that there will be three separate contacts with each degree within the Arc of Retrograde, as compared to one brief contact with each degree within the Arc of Advance.

The Arc of Retrograde is thus marked by four points: (a) the Pre-First-Station point at which the arc begins, when it first passes the degree which later marks the Second Station; (b) the First Station, where the motion turns Retrograde; (c) the Second Station, where the motion turns direct; and (d) the Post-Second-Station point, where the arc ends, marked by the passing of the degree of the First Station.

A further consideration is in the fact that with the major planets the opposition to the Sun occurs always in the middle of the Arc of Retrograde, while the conjunction occurs in the middle of the Arc of Advance. Also, that at the opposition the Earth is nearer to the planet, by the length of the diameter of its own orbit. This is for the reason that at any planet's opposition to the Sun, the Earth is between that planet and the Sun: while at the conjunction the Earth is on the far side of the Sun opposite the planet.

In the case of the minor planets, the Earth never passes between them and the Sun, hence they never oppose the Sun. However, the Superior conjunction which occurs when the earth and the planet are on opposite sides of the Sun, falls in the middle of the Arc of Advance, and the Inferior Conjunction, when the planet passes between the Earth and the Sun, is midway in the Arc of Retrograde.

Modern students take these various factors into consideration in analyzing the influence of a transiting planet in different portions of its orbit, and in different relationships to the position of the Earth in its orbit.

By way of illustrating the Retrograde Arc, the data on two cycles of Mars is given:

..Enters Arc.........1945....10-3...14° 6' Cancer..|..1947....11-3......18 6' Leo

..First Station SR...1947....12-5....3°14' Leo.....|..1948.....1-9.......7°36' Virgo

..Second Station SD..1946.....2-22..14°06' Cancer..|...........3-30.....18°06' Leo

..Leaves Arc..................4-30...3°14' Leo.....|...........6-5.......736' Virgo

Retrograde Application. Said of a planet which during and by virtue of its retrograde motion is applying to an aspect with another planet; or of two planets, both in retrograde motion, which nevertheless are applying to an aspect to each other.

Revolution. Orbital Revolution. (1) Loosely applied to any- thing that describes a circle, or pursues an orbit, in contradistinction to one which rotates upon an axis. (2) In connection with Directions (q.v.), the return of Sun, Moon, or any planet to its radical place. Revolution, Solar. v. Solar Revolution.

Revolutionary Additives. v. Solar Revolution.

Right Ascension. Distance measured along the celestial equator, Eastward from the point of the Spring Equinox; or, as sometimes described, distance along the circle of declination. v. Celestial Sphere.

Right Distance. That from one point to any other, in terms of Right Ascension.

Right Sphere. One in which all equatorial parallels are at right angles to the horizon: a sphere that has the equator for prime vertical, and the poles for horizon. Days and nights would always be of equal duration. Any point on the equator has a zenith in a right Sphere.

Rising Sign. The Sign or the subdivision of the Sign which was rising on the eastern horizon at the moment of birth, is deemed to exercise a strong influence upon the personality and physical appearance of the native. This is subject to modification by virtue of concurrent aspects. The placement of the Lord of the Ascendant, of the Moon, or of the planet aspecting the ascending degree, are also deemed to accent the particular subdivision of the Rising Sun in which the ascending degree falls. Interpretations by numerous authorities are available by Signs, by Decans and by demi-Decans - both incorrectly termed Faces by some authorities. In applying any of the interpretations attached to a Rising Sign it should be remembered that the presence of a planet in the Ascendant will always modify the influence of the Sign itself. v. Sidereal Time.

Rising Time of a Planet, How to Approximate the. In the Ephemeris note the sidereal time for the day. If it is for 0h or midnight instead of 12h or noon, add 12 hours. Also note the degree position of the planet. In a Table of Houses for your latitude, find the sidereal time that corresponds to the degree position. The time difference between the S.T. of the planet's position and the S.T. noon position for the day, will be the elapsed time before or after noon that the planet will rise. For example, on Jan. 1, 1940, the Sun was in 9° Capricorn. The S. T. of 6h 38m at 24h Standard Time, becames S.T. at noon, 18h 38m. In Lat. 40°, a 9° Capricorn Ascendant corresponds with S.T. 14h 6m. The difference is 4h 32m before noon, or 7h 28m local civil or mean time - which varies by only a few minutes from the sunrise time given in the almanac. This local mean time should be further corrected to Standard Time by 4m per degree to the nearest Standard meridian. The rising time of any planet can be determined by the same method. v. Table of Houses.

The following formula can also be employed:

From Ephemeris take:

...(1) Sidereal Time on MC at Midnight of desired day.

...(2) Add or subtract 12 = ST at Noon.

...(3) Degree occupied by Sun on the same day.

From Table of Houses for desired Latitude, locate in Ascendant column the degree occupied by the Sun, and take from the first column (4) the equivalent ST.

Then: (4) - (1) = the arc from Noon to Sunrise, stated in hours;

..................hence the approximate time of Sunrise;

......(2) - (4) = approximate hour of Sunset.

Example: For Dec. 17, 1946 at Lat. 40° N

...(1) ST at Midnight, 5h 40m + 12 = (2) ST at Noon, 17h 40m

...(3) Long. 24°26'

...(4) Equivalent S.T. 13h 2m

.........Sunrise..............Sunset

.......(4) 13h 2m..........(2) 17h 40m

.... - (1) 5h 40m....... - (4) 13h 2m

...........7h 22m AM............4h 38m PM

Rice gives 7h 16m AM and 4h 13m PM.

To find the approximate time of rising and setting of Venus on that day:

From Ephemeris take Venus Long., 20°10'

From Table of Houses take (5) the equivalent S.T....14h 46m

.....Subtract (4) Sun's equivalent S.T..............13h  2m

.....................................................1h 44m

Since Capricorn rises after Sagittarius:

Venus rises 1h 44m after Sunrise, or 9h 6m AM; and sets 1h 44m after Sunset; or 6h 22m PM.

The same process will yield the rising and setting time of any planet.

Rotation. Preferably confined to the motion of a spherical body upon an axis, in contradistinction to its orbital revolution about another body. A more precise terminology would employ the compound forms: axial rotation, and orbital revolution.

Royal Stars. v. Watchers.

Ruler. This rather over-worked and at times loosely-applied term is principally concerned with a schematic arrangement of the Signs, whereby certain planets are deemed to have special potency or congeniality in a certain sign or signs. The entire subject of rulership is involved in much controversy, particularly since the modern discovery of additional planets for which there is no place in the ancient scheme of rulerships.

This ancient scheme was based on the reasoning that since Leo is deemed the most regal of the signs, the Sun must naturally be its ruler. Similarly Cancer, as the most maternal of signs, should be ruled by the Moon. The planets, beginning with Mercury and moving outward from the Sun, were then ascribed to the next adjacent pairs: Mercury, to Gemini and Virgo; Venus, to Taurus and Libra; Mars, to Aries and Scorpio; Jupiter, to Sagittarius and Pisces; and Saturn, to Capricorn and Aquarius. A planet in a sign of which it is the Ruler is said to be in its own sign. In the case of the dual rulerships, the Positive sign is its "day home" and the Negative sign its "night home." The use of "day house" is unfortunate in that "house" is a subdivision of a 24-hour orbit, while the sign over which the planet is presumed to rule is a subdivision of a 365-day orbit.

Many modern authorities have broken down this scheme by ascribing Uranus to the rulership or co-rulership of Aquarius, Neptune to Pisces, and Pluto variously to Aries or Scorpio. Others deem these distant planets to represent a second octave, indicating higher concepts, and conferring greater possibilities upon those sufficiently developed to be able to handle a high-tension current, but threatening catastrophe to elemental and undisciplined types. On this theory, Uranus would be the super-ruler of Gemini and Virgo; Neptune of Taurus and Libra; and Pluto of Aries and Scorpio - leaving the second octave planets of Jupiter and Saturn yet to be discovered.

The use of "ruler" in connection with the Houses, is confusing, and the rule generally recommended is: "Lord of a House; Ruler of a Sign." As indicating anatomical and geographical areas it is more precise to say "has dominion over" than to say "ruled by."

The Lord of a House is deemed to be the Ruler of the Sign that occupies the cusp. The Lord of the Nativity, or as often termed the Ruler of the Horoscope, is variously the most strongly placed planet in the map, especially that planet which is in the First House and close to the ascending degree. Lacking a planet so placed, the Ruler of the ascending sign is the Lord of the Nativity.

It is presumed by some that the Arabians employed a system of House rulerships which consists of the planets arranged in converse order: the Sun as Lord of the First House; Moon, of the Twelfth; Mercury, the Eleventh; Venus, the Tenth; Mars, the Ninth; Jupiter, the Eighth; Saturn, the Seventh; Uranus, the Sixth; Neptune, the Fifth; Pluto, the Fourth; with three as yet undiscovered planets for the remaining Houses.

The commonly observed rules for determining the Lord of the Nativity are: (1) If the Lord of the Ascendant is poorly aspected and in an uncongenial sign, a more elevated planet should be considered, if there be such. (2) If the Lord of the Ascendant is strongly placed and well aspected, but there is another planet which by position and aspects is deemed of equal power, both planets may be considered as co-rulers in a dual Lordship. Some deem that with an Aquarian Ascendant, Saturn and Uranus are co-rulers of the map; and that a Piscean Ascendant makes Jupiter and Neptune co-rulers - because these are major planets and exceedingly strong. (3) If the choice is between two planets of which one is more afflicted than the other, the afflicted planet is to be selected - in that unfavorable aspects are positive and favorable aspects negative. (4) If the Lord of the Ascendant is weak, the Ruler of the Sun sign may be the Lord of the Nativity, if it is in powerful aspect to the Sun and Moon. (5) Either Sun or Moon may be the Lord of the Nativity if strongly placed and in the sign of its Rulership or Exaltation. (6) An Exalted planet is generally deemed to be a co-ruler. (7) The Ruler of an intercepted sign in the First House is generally accepted as a co-ruler - after such time as by progression the cusp will have advanced into the intercepted sign. (8) Accidental Dignities are deemed to outweigh Essential Dignities, especially where a planet occupies the Tenth House.

Conditions affecting the Ruler of the Sign on the cusp of a House, or of the Sign intercepting a House, are of secondary importance to the influence of a planet actually posited in the House. However, the considerations affecting the Ruler are consulted for testimony concerning a House in which no planet is posited, on the principle that the planet's dignity with reference to a house on the cusp of which its sign appears, persists even though its owner may be absent. v. Dignities.

Rulership, Geographical. For the interpreting of Horary figures, certain countries and cities are said to be under the rulership of different signs. The following list is from Alan Leo, a British authority:

Sign Rulership of Countries

ARIES: Britain, Denmark, Galitia, Germany, Lithuania, Lower Poland, Palestine, Syria.

TAURUS: Azerbaijan, Asia Minor, Caucasus, Georgia, Holland, Ire- land, Mozendaran, Persia, Poland, White Russia.

GEMINI: Armenia, Belgium, Brabant, Egypt (Lower), England (West), Flanders, Lombardy, Sardinia, Tripoli, United States.

CANCER: Africa (North and West), Holland, Scotland, Zealand.

LEO: Alps, Bohemia, Cappadocia, Chaldea, France, Italy, Sicily, Coast of Sidon, and Tyre.

VIRGO: Assyria, Babylon, Candia, Corinth, Crete, Croatia, Mesopotamia, Morea, Silesia (Lower), Switzerland, Thessaly, Turkey.

LIBRA: Argentina, Austria, China, Egypt, Japan, Livonia, Savoy, Thibet, Burma.

SCORPIO: Algeria, Barbary, Bavaria, Catatonia, Fez, Judea, Jutland, Morocco, Norway.

SAGITTARIUS: Arabia, Cape Finisterre, Dalmatia, France, Hungary, Italy, Moravia, Provence, Spain, Slavonia, Tuscany.

CAPRICORN: Bosnia, Bulgaria, Hesse, India, Illyria, Khorassan, Lithuania, Macedonia, Mexico, Morea, Mecklenburg, Punjab, Thrace, Styria, Saxony.

AQUARIUS: Arabia, Abyssinia, Circassia, Lithuania, Lower Sweden, Prussia, Poland, Piedmont, Russia, Tartary, Westphalia.

PISCES: Asia (Southern), Africa (North), Sahara Desert, Calabria, Egypt, Galicia (Spain), Nubia, Normandy, Portugal.

Sign Rulership of Cities

ARIES: Brunswick, Capua, Cracow, Florence, Leicester, Marseilles, Naples, Padua, Saragossa, Utrecht.

TAURUS: Dublin, Franconia, Leipsic, Mantua, Palermo, Parma.

GEMINI: Cordova, London, Louvain, Mentz, Nuremburg, Versailles.

CANCER: Amsterdam, Berne, Cadiz, Constantinople, Genoa, Lubeck, Manchester, Milan, St. Andrews, Stockholm, Tunis, Venice, York.

LEO: Bath, Bolton-le-Moors, Bombay, Bristol, Damascus, Portsmouth, Prague, Ravenna, Rome, Taunton.

VIRGO: Basle, Bagdad, Cheltenham, Heidelburg, Jerusalem, Lyons, Navarre, Padua, Paris, Reading.

LIBRA: Antwerp, Charlestown, Frankford, Fribourg, Lisbon, Speyer, Plasencia, Vienna.

SCORPIO: Frankfort on the Oder, Ghent, Liverpool, and Messina. SAGITTARIUS: Avignon, Buda, Cologne, Narbonne, Naples, Sheffield.

CAPRICORN: Brussels, Constance, Oxford, Port Said.

AQUARIUS: Bremen, Hamburg, Ingoldstadt, Salsburg, Trent.

PISCES: Alexandria, Compostela, Ratisbon, Seville, Tiverton, Worms.

Rulership of American Cities. Opinion concerning the rulership of cities in the United States is not always unanimous. The following rulerships are taken from various sources. Those marked by an asterisk are deemed slightly conjectural by one American writer, Charles Bates, who has devoted considerable research to the subject.

.......................Ascendant....Sun

...Baltimore, Md.......Scorpio*

...Boston..............Capricorn*...Virgo

...Chicago.............Libra........Leo

...Cleveland...........Scorpio*.....Pisces*

...Detroit.............Leo..........Leo

...Los Angeles.........Libra........Virgo

...Miami...............Libra........Leo

...New Orleans.........Scorpio*

...New York............Cancer.......Taurus

...Philadelphia........Virgo*.......Cancer

...St. Louis...........Taurus.......Aquarius

...San Francisco.......Scorpio#

...Toledo..............Sagittarius*

...Washington, D.C.....Scorpio......Virgo

*Slightly conjectural. #Others say Gemini or Leo.

Ruminant Signs. Aries, Taurus, Capricorn. v. Signs.


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