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Encyclopedia of Astrology (Nicholas deVore)
 

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Sagittarius. The ninth sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

Saros. (1) A Chaldean and Babylonian interpretation of a cycle of 60 days as 60 years. (2) 60 sixties, or 3,600. (3) A lunar cycle of 6,585.32 days - 223 lunations; or 18 years, 11 1/3 days. In this period the centers of Sun and Moon return so nearly to the same relative places that the eclipses of the next period recur in approximately the same sequence - but with their zone of visibility shifted 120° to the Westward. (v. Eclipses.)

Because the Node recedes 19.5 a year, the Sun meets the same Node in 346.62 days - the eclipse year. As this does not coincide with the Lunar periods, the Sun moves past the node a degree a day for as many days as it takes for the Moon to reach a conjunction or opposition. Thus either a Solar or Lunar Eclipse may occur before or after the Sun reaches the Node, or both before and after. If the Lunation occurs within 2 or 3 days before or after the Sun reaches the Node there may be no accompanying Lunar Eclipse, as on Dec. 3, 1918 and May 29, 1919 (Saros Series 11).

If the Lunation or Full Moon occurs from 4 to 9 days before the Sun reaches the Node, there will be a Lunar Eclipse followed by a Solar Eclipse, or the reverse. If the Lunation occurs from 10 to 12 days before the Sun reaches the Node there may be a series of three Eclipses: a Solar before the Node, a Lunar at the Node, and another Solar when the Sun has passed beyond the Node. Associated with this are certain values:

......................................................Days

...242 returns of the Moon to a particular Node.......6585.36

....19 returns of the Sun to the same Node............6585.78

...233 Synodic months.................................6585.32

Saturn chasing the Moon. This is one of the most powerful of Saturnian conditions. Since the progressed Moon takes twenty-eight and Saturn thirty years to complete the circle, the two may in rare cases, approximately coincide. An affliction of the Moon by Saturn is of itself one of the most unfortunate of aspects; for when the aspect is close and the progressing Moon moves at about the same rate as Saturn, a transit of Saturn to the Moon can persist indefinitely - often for a lifetime: thus resulting in a double affliction. However, the condition can occur only where the Moon at birth is in conjunction, square or opposition to Saturn.

Saturnine. One of a dour disposition - a meaning borrowed wholly from Astrology, which defines it as one who has a strong Saturn accent.

Saturnalia. The Roman festival of Saturn which annually on Dec. 17 began a week of feasting.

Satellite. A planet or moon that revolves about another. The Moon is a satellite of the Earth; and according to Newton, both are satellites of the Sun. In modern Astrology it is confined to a body which revolves around one of the planets in our solar system.

Satellitium. Stellium. A group of five or more planets in one Sign or House. In an angle it portends great changes of fortune, the good and the bad coming in patches. Heavy falls are succeeded in due course by a spectacular comeback, and vice versa. Such persons usually have many acquaintances, but few real friends. They can hardly fail of considerable recognition at some periods of their lives.

Scorpio. The eighth sign of the zodiac. v. Signs.

Secondary Progressions. Zodiacal aspects formed by the orbital motions of the planets on successive days after birth, each day accounted the equivalent of one year of life. Aspects are calculated to the birth positions of the luminaries, planets and angles, and mutual aspects are formed between the progressed planets. The application of this system of forecasting future conditioning that may be expected to crystallize in events, involves the directing of the Midheaven, Ascendant and the Sun by their natural progress in the heavens after birth. The Sun and the Midheaven progress at an average rate of 59'08" per day (the so-called "Naibod Arc"), to form aspects to the radical positions of the planets, while the planets move at varying rates to form aspects to the radical positions of the Significators. The most dependable factor in Secondary Progressions is the advancing of the progressed Moon, forming aspects to the radical and progressed places of the planets and to the places of the Significators, which are interpreted according to the places in which the aspects fall by Sign and House.

With specific reference to the progressions of the Moon it is generally considered: that such aspects produce strong though gradual effects of about one month's duration; that the month when the progressed Moon is approaching a square to her own radical place is generally marked by accidents and infirmities, the next preceding semi-square usually giving an indication of the nature of the crisis or physical ailment that can be expected to develop; that trine and sextile aspects of the transitory and of the progressed Moon to the radical Moon generally outline favorable days and months; and that square and opposition aspects also strongly influence and that adversely, forming critical periods around the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day and year.

In general it is held that directions act in terms of the Radix and that when the Nativity is unfortunate no favorable direction can have the same efficacy as an adverse one; and vice versa when the Nativity is fortunate. In other words, the accidental good cannot overcome the radical evil. (v. Radix System.)

The revised Sepharial Dictionary defines Secondary Progressions somewhat misleadingly as those based upon the progress of the Moon in the zodiac. However, the aspects formed by the Moon in the Secondary system are important, and some authorities hold that unless they are of the same nature as the Primary Directions, hence tend to strengthen their operation, the primary directions will have little effect; but when they do coincide, a decided influence will be traceable in the life of the person whose chart is under consideration. According to this a Primary Direction would not function until such time as the progressed Moon forms an aspect of a similar nature. v. Directions.

In calculating Progressions by the system of taking the positions of the planets as given in the Ephemeris for the next day following birth, as the equivalent of their progressed positions at the end of the first year of life, use may be made of this table. [Apolo's Note: 'd.' means 'day'; 'h.' means 'hour(s)'; 'm.' means 'minute(s)'; 's.' means 'second(s)'.]

......1 d. = 1 year

......2 h. = 1 month

.....30 m. = 1 week

......4 m. = 1 day

......1 m. = 6 hours

.....10 s. = 1 hour

......1 s. = 6 minutes

Seer. One who sees; a crystal gazer; a person endowed with second sight; one who foresees future events - a prophet; astrologically, one whose extra-sensory perceptions enable him to vizualize the ultimate effects that will result from the cosmic causes portrayed in a birth Figure.

Semi-Arc. That portion of a celestial body's apparent daily travel, during which it remains above the horizon, from its rising to its setting, is called its diurnal arc; hence half of the arc, from horizon to midheaven, is its Diurnal Semi-Arc. The other half, most of which is under the earth, is its nocturnal arc, and half of it becomes the Nocturnal Semi-Arc. The Sun's semi-arc, diurnal or nocturnal, when in 0° Aries or 0° Libra, is six hours or 90° all over the Earth. At other seasons the one is greater or less than the other, according to the time of the year and the latitude of the place. The greatest discrepancy occurs where the N. or S. latitude is high, and when the Sun is in 0° Cancer or 0° Capricorn. The semi-arc is usually measured in degrees of R. A. passing over the Meridian; although it can be expressed in terms of time.

Semi-Quintil. An 36 aspect (v. Quintile).

Semicircle. v. Lunar; Solar.

Semi-sextile. A 30 aspect. (q.v.)

Semi-square. A 45 aspect. (q.v.)

Senses, Significators of the. Generally accepted as the significators of the five physical senses, are:

Mercury,...sight

Venus,.....touch

Mars,......taste

Jupiter,...smell

Saturn,....hearing

Separating, separation. v. Aspects.

Sesqui-quadrate. A 135 aspect (q.v.)

Sesquiquintile. A 108 aspect (q.v.)

Seven. Anciently the number of the bodies presumed to make up our solar system, to which number was ascribed a magical significance. Identified with them were the days of the week and the seven notes of the Diatonic scale. In 1666 Newton ascribed to them the seven hues of the spectrum.

Man was presumed to be a seven-fold being:

Sun:......His life-forces; the spiritual being within.

Moon:.....His psychic being; the vegetable kingdom.

Mercury:..His intellect; the realm of Mind.

Venus:....His divine, immortal self; the benevolent nature.

Mars:.....His bestial nature; the animal nature.

Jupiter:..His higher physical nature; the quality of optimism.

Saturn:...His physical being; the mineral kingdom.

The seven deadly sins of the ancient theologians were said to have been of astrological origin: Pride, Jupiter; covetousness, Saturn; lust, Venus; wrath, Mars; gluttony, Mercury; envy, Moon; indolence, Sun.

Also the seven virtues: Chastity, Moon; love, Venus; courage, Mars; faith, Jupiter; hope, Sun; wisdom, Mercury; and prudence, Saturn.

There were also seven wise men of Greece; the seven-fold Amen; the Seven Wonders of the World; the Book of the Seven Seals (Rev. 5,5), and the seven angels (Rev. 5,8).

The Seven against Thebes were the seven heroes who undertook an expedition to aid Polynices against his brother Eteoclus. The oracle promised success to whichever brother Oedipus favored; but he cursed both, and the brothers slew each other.

Seven has been explained as compounded of "The Ternary of God and the Quarternary of the world," as representing "three-fold and four-fold happiness," making 3 + 4 = 7 a sacred number: a reference to the 4 quadruplicities and the 3 triplicities. Any multiple of seven became a "great number": a jubilee year of restitution.

Since every seventh year from time immemorial was believed to form some material alteration, it has been observed in some professions as a sabbatical year of rest, comparable to the seventh day on which the Creator rested from his labors - as recounted in the Book of Genesis. For the Seven Ages of Man, v. Planetary, Ages of Man.

Sexagenary. (1) A scale of numbers or a method of computation that proceeds by sixties - as in degree, minutes and seconds. (2) Said of tables prepared for the purpose of showing proportional parts of the number 60°: giving the product of two sexagenary numbers multiplied; or the quotient of two such when divided.

Sextile. A 60 aspect (q.v.)

Sextiles. A body sextiles another toward which it is approaching from a distance of from 53 to 60.

Sidereal Clock. A clock found in every astronomical observatory, which is set to register oh om os when 0° Aries is on the Zenith. Formerly a noon point, but since 1925 a midnight point, it moves forward in the zodiac by 1°, or 4 minutes, each day, hence the Sidereal Time at noon (or midnight if since 1925) on any day shows what sign and degree is on the M.C. at that particular moment. For example, ST at 0h, or midnight, on May 1, 1945 is 14h 34m 14s: approx. 874m / 4 = 218 degrees = approx. 8° Scorpio on M.C. The Sidereal Clock indicates 24h, while the solar chronometer registers 23h 56m 4.0906s of Mean Solar Time. It does not register A.M. or P.M., but divides the dial into 24 hourly periods. The so-called Army and Navy time of World War 11 indicates the eventual universal use of the same system applied to solar time, whereby for example, 2 P.M. will be known as 1400.

After the Sidereal clock has been set at 0h to coincide with the moment of the Earth's crossing the intersecting point of the Ecliptic and Equator, the next noon it will read something like 12:04 - the distance the Earth has travelled in orbit in one solar day, shown in units of time. Thus each successive day at noon it shows the cumulative amount of the Earth's orbital travel since noon on the day of the equinox. Thereby sidereal time becomes the hour angle of the Vernal Equinox, and the Earth's position at Greenwich Noon on any day can be expressed in terms of hours, minutes and seconds. Its position along the ecliptic is expressed in degrees and minutes of longitude, and along the equator in degrees and minutes of Right Ascension.

Sidereal Day. The interval between two successive transits of the first point of Aries over the upper meridian of any place. The Sidereal Day is equal to 23h 56m 4.09s of mean solar time, and it has sidereal hours, each of 60 sidereal minutes, each minute of 60 sidereal seconds.

Sidereal Time. A method of time-reckoning based upon the period elapsing between two successive passages of some particular star, taken as a fixed celestial point, over a given point on the circumference of the Earth. During one such rotation the Sun's apparent orbital travel has amounted to approximately 1°, hence the return of a given point on the Earth to the same relationship with the Sun requires added travel to the extent of 1° of arc or 4 minutes of time. Thus each calendar anniversary shows an annual net gain of 1°, which is the basis of all systems of progressed influences. The S.T. at any moment is the angular distance along the Ecliptic from 0° Aries, the point of the Spring Equinox, to the meridian of a given place at noon on a given day, expressed in h. m. s. The Right Ascension of the Meridian (RAMC) is a similar angular distance along the Equator expressed in degrees and minutes of arc.

When the Spring equinoctial point is on the observer's meridian it is S.T. 0h. When that degree has moved 15° it is 1h S.T. Thus the time required for the equinoctial degree to move to a certain advanced position becomes the unit through which that position is expressed. To determine the sidereal time for a given moment at a certain place, take from the ephemeris the ST for that date and apply certain corrections, viz.: If the ephemeris is for any other meridian than Greenwich make sure to take that into account, adding or subtracting your distance from this meridian, not from Greenwich; also add or subtract 12 hours if you are calculating your time-interval from midnight.

Additions to this S.T. for stations west of the zone meridian are made in degrees expressed in solar mean time, four minutes for each degree, which must be further converted by adding 0s.657 for each degree to reduce the additions to sidereal time. The hours added for the elapsed time since oh must also be adjusted in the same proportion. v. Time.

Sidereal Year. v. Year.

Sign. One of the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac. The annual revolution of the Earth round the Sun is divided into the 360° of a circle, a division that mathematically and astronomically is universally accepted. The subdivisions of the circle into 12 equal arcs, distinguished by names, are known as the Signs of the Zodiac. They no longer bear any relationship to the constellations of the same name.

These arcs are measured from the point where the Sun crosses the celestial equator at the beginning of Spring on or about March 21st each year. As this is coincidental with the position of the Earth's axis at right angles to the radius of its orbit, the days and nights are of equal duration all over the Earth. The point is termed the Vernal Equinox. That the Zodiacal year seems at one period of history to have begun with Taurus indicates that these records date from between 2,000 and 4,000 B.C., during which period the equinoctial point fell in Taurus.

The further fact that the Equinox still continues to fall in 0° Aries indicates that at some time since the beginning of the Christian era the fixed Zodiac of constellations was abandoned and the names reapplied to a moving Zodiac based upon the equinoctial point, then recognized as the beginning of the astrological year. The year's arc of precession was thus ignored - an annual loss of a moment of time that shows up in no calculation at present in use, other than in a consideration of the Precession of the equinoctial point and the one degree revision of star positions every seventy years.

Can it be that our only record of one of these early readjustments of the calendar is that of Joshua having commanded the Sun to stand still?

Thus for at least 40 centuries astrologers have recognized the receding point of the Node of intersection of the Ecliptic and the Celestial Equator as the commencement of a scheme of magnetic conditioning. (v. Solar System.)

Of the twelve signs there are four basic groups:

The Inspirational Group - the Fire signs.

The Emotional Group - the Water signs.

The Mental Group - the Air signs.

The Practical Group - the Earth signs.

These are termed the Elements, or Triplicities - since three signs are embraced in each group, as follows:

...............Cardinal.....Fixed......Mutable

.....Fire:.....Aries........Leo........Sagittarius

.....Water:....Cancer.......Scorpio....Pisces

.....Air:......Libra........Aquarius...Gemini

.....Earth:....Capricorn....Taurus.....Virgo

As the English language abounds in words which had their origin in the symbology of the ancients, the use of terms such as fire, earth, air and water, do not indicate any present-day adherence to the ancient concept that matter is composed of these four primary elements. They are merely terms, but as such they appear aptly to symbolize, now as then, an outstanding characteristic of each of the four basic groups into which mankind is classified according to astrology. In fact, it becomes doubtful whether this grouping was ever intended to apply to the elements of matter, since fire could hardly have been looked upon even in that day as a physical element. More than likely it is a modern misconception of their symbolic interpretation of the psychological elements discerned in zodiacal influences.

Of each of these elemental groups or triplicities there are three types, or qualities, as shown in the previous arrangement: the Cardinal or Initiative signs, the Fixed or Executive signs, and the Mutable or Deductive signs. As there are four of each, these are known as the Quadruplicities.

Key words often associated with the twelve Signs are:

..Aries:....Aspiration...|..Libra:.......Equilibrium

..Taurus:...Integration..|..Scorpio:.....Creativity

..Gemini:...Vivification.|..Sagittarius:.Administration

..Cancer:...Expansion....|..Capricorn:...Discrimination

..Leo:......Assurance....|..Aquarius:....Loyalty

..Virgo:....Assimilation.|..Pisces:......Appreciation

   

Another classification into four groups representing the four seasons, is known as the Trinities:

..Intellectual..Maternal....Reproductive....Serving

..(Spring)......(Summer)....(Autumn)........(Winter)

..1. Aries......4. Cancer...7. Libra........10. Capricorn

..2. Taurus.....5. Leo......8. Scorpio......11. Aquarius

..3. Gemini.....6. Virgo....9. Sagittarius..12. Pisces

Cardinal Signs. So called because they are placed at the East, West, North and South points of the astrological figure, hence compare to the four Cardinal points of the compass-the points usually marked by a red arrow. They are variously termed, the Leading, Movable, Acute, Changeable or Initiating signs or types, and as they represent the active temperament are said to partake of the nature of the Ascendant.

Fixed Signs, because they represent a balance of conflicting forces, are more uniformly referred to as the Fixed or Grave signs or Executive types; although occasionally referred to as the "foundation" signs - those which most distinctly typify each element, because of which they were said to have been dominant in the formulation of the Mosaic laws. They have also been called the Seismic or "earthquake" signs, on the assumption that earthquakes most frequently occur when the Sun or Moon is in a Fixed sign. They are the power-houses of the zodiac - reservoirs of energy; the Formators of the Chaldeans, the Cherubim of the Hebrews - the builders of the world. The fixed sign tenacity is depended upon to support or stabilize the leading signs.

Mutable Signs, representing the arcs in which there is a perpetual condition of slowing down in readiness to turn a corner; a mobilization for action, and the indecision which results or accompanies it; were symbolized by concepts which would express this duality - the twins, the two deep-water sea-horses, or the half-man, half-horse of the Archer; hence also called the Dual or the Double-bodied Signs; and by some, the Common or Flexed Signs. They are the minds of their Triplicity, with their quickness and versatility acting as mediators between the Leading and Fixed Signs. They have been called the "reconcilers of the universe."

The Signs of the Zodiac should not be confounded with the Zodiac of Constellations with which they have only an historic relationship. Somewhat before the Christian era the Constellations (q.v.) and the Signs coincided. Since then the Precession (q.v.) of the Equinoctial point has produced a separation of approximately 1° in seventy-two years, or a total of about thirty degrees in 2000 years. It is not possible to establish with exactness the date upon which they coincided, for there is no sharp line or boundary between the general areas associated with the group of stars that make up a constellation, as compared to the Signs which are measured in 30° arcs along the Ecliptic beginning at the point of the Spring Equinox. Aries 0° is now in or about to enter the last degrees of the constellation of Aquarius, hence current references to the Aquarian Age; also to the two thousand years of the Piscean Age through which the Equinoctial Point has receded since the dawn of the Christian era - an epoch symbolized in the parable of the Loaves and the Fishes.

The four elements go farther than the mere locating of the Sun position. The qualities contained in the signs positing the Moon and the planets are gradually developed by every stimulation that reaches the native through these points of receptivity. Every planet and every angle, as it passes over each birth sensitivity, results in an accent. This means that each of a dozen points of receptivity are daily stimulated by an accent from each of a dozen points of electro-magnetic radiation, resulting in something like 144 daily accents - not counting the changes resulting from the orbital motion of each energy-radiating body. That is why planets well distributed among signs of the different elements, produce the well-rounded individual. The Greek philosophers built on this basis their thesis that the whole man consisted of the interweaving of the four categories, into one of which can be placed every human activity. These are:

...Category..........From contemplation of....................Because of accents in

1. Physical......Body: functions and needs....................Earth

2. Intellectual..Mind: concepts and thought processes.........Air

3. Aesthetic.....Soul: yearnings; emotional processes.........Water

4. Moral.........Spirit: aspirations, conduct, and character..Fire

The terminology of the trigons, or triplicities of Elements, is universal: fire, water, air and earth; although some moderns prefer to call them the Inspirational, Emotional, Mental and Practical Natures.

These four Elements, as represented by the fixed type of each group, are symbolized in the figures of the Cherubim, and in the Assyrian "winged lion." Also in the Egyptian Sphynx, in which the Bull's body (Taurus), the Lion's paws and tail (Leo), the Eagle's wings (Scorpio), and the Human head (Aquarius), repre- sent the four types which combine to form the body politic.

They are also embodied in the deck of cards: clubs for fire, diamonds for earth, hearts for water, and spades for air; the black suits representing the positive signs and the red suits the negative signs.

They are depicted symbolically in the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, and are builded into the Paris Notre Dame Cathedral, which is as completely an astrological edifice as is the great Pyramid. In Revelation V:7 one reads that "the first beast was ne a lion, and the second beast like a calf, and the third beast had a face as a man, and the fourth beast was like a flying eagle." Later on are described horses with the faces of men, the teeth of lions, wings, and a sting in the tall like unto a scorpion. In Chaucer, Shakespeare and all the writers of the Elizabethan age, astrological allusions are frequent; in fact, the symbolism of the fixed signs as representing the four elementary types of the genus homo, are the subject of innumerable allusions in art and literature.

The "earthiness" of the materialistic or practical Earth sign group is quite generally represented by the thick-necked bull - the Taurus. In Hindu lore the chariot of Vishnu is symbolized by a Bull. The Legend of St. George and the Dragon depicts the opposition of Taurus to Scorpio.

In Chinese astrology, Taurus was the White Tiger: Leo, the Red Bird; Scorpio, the Black Dragon; and Aquarius, the Black Warrior - again a "human" sign.

The inspirational Fire sign group are almost universally symbolized by the Lion.

The sympathetic, sensitive and often vindictive, emotional Water sign group are frequently represented by the Scorpion, not only because of its "sting" but also for the frequency with which it was anciently supposed to sting itself to death rather than face a ring of fire. It is also symbolized by the serpent - perhaps connotating the "wisdom of the serpent" of the Garden of Eden. In the Roman Sphynx it is represented by the asp on the man's forehead. Its "lone wolf" proclivities, and the frequency with which strength in Scorpio is reflected in a Roman nose - the eagle's beak - have been symbolized at some periods of antiquity by the Eagle, as evidenced by the eagle's wings on the Egyptian Sphynx.

The intellectual or mental Air sign group is almost universally represented by a man, usually pouring out water from a jug - symbolizing the giving of the water of knowledge to a thirsting world. The three air signs have been spoken of as the "triangle of harmony, peace and equilibrium."

Signs, and the Disciples. It is commonly considered from the many New Testament pronouncements of astrological doctrine, that the Twelve Disciples were chosen, each to represent a different one of the twelve fundamental types and qualities with a ruling Trinity of the central Sun (the Father) whose spiritual and intellectual light (the Holy Spirit) reflected by the Moon (the Son) flowed out through these twelve apostles into all the world-representing humanity divided into its twelve basic types. The disciples considered this order so important that after Judas's betrayal Mathias took his place as one of the twelve.

Aries: Peter, the fiery, impulsive, changeable, pioneering leader, who eventually became the rock upon which was founded the New Church "of the Lamb." (Initiating: inspirational)

Taurus: Simon Zelotes, the dogmatic, determined zealot; who was concerned with property and finances, rebelled against the payment of taxes, and received from Jesus the admonition - "Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's." (Fixed: materialistic)

Gemini: James, "the lesser." Slow to accept the authenticity of the Messiah, but became the eloquent preacher of the church in Jerusalem, and an active evangelist and exhorter. (Mutable: intellectual)

Cancer: Andrew, the sympathetic homebody, a follower of John the Baptist, whose first thought when he discovered the Messiah was to run quickly and fetch his brother Simon. (Initiating: sympathetic)

Leo: John, the most beloved apostle. (Fixed: inspirational)

Virgo: Philip, always precise, calculating, enquiring, and practical. (Mutable: materialistic)

Libra: Bartholomew-Nathaniel, the innocently pure one "in whom there is no guile." The tactful, persuasive evangelist. (Initiating: intellectual)

Scorpio: Thomas, the doubting skeptic, yet bold and courageous. (Fixed: sympathetic)

Sagittarius: James, the great teacher, who with Peter and John became the spiritual leaders of the early church: the three fire sign types cooperating. (Mutable: inspirational)

Capricorn: Matthew, the tax gatherer, the politician, the one in authority in the governing seat in Rome. (Initiating: materialistic)

Aquarius: Thaddeus-Jude, who considered the lot of the peasant, and sought to better the living and working conditions of the masses; and who interrogated Jesus at the Last Supper as to how he would manifest himself. (Fixed: intellectual)

Pisces: Judas Iscariot, who when he succumbed to temptation suf- fered severe pangs of remorse. (Mutable: sympathetic)

Signs, The Symbology of Twelve. Dr. Curtiss characterized the evangelistic authors of the four gospels, in terms of the fixed types of the four elemental groups, in this fashion:

.......Matthew-Aquarius........To Know.

.......Mark-Leo................To Dare.

.......Luke-Taurus.............To Do.

.......John-Scorpio............To Keep Silent.

In the Book of Revelations we read that by the River of Life grew a Tree of Life and of its twelve manner of fruits whereby it yielded a different fruit for each month of the year.

Elsewhere in the Bible, which is a great repository of astrological truths, we find God referred to as the Logos, out of which went four rivers. In Abraham's effort to restore the Logos, we find the symbol of an earlier Trinity: Abraham, the spiritual father; Isaac, the thought concept; and Jacob, the physical externalization.

Jacob's twelve sons were the chiefs of the Twelve Tribes of Israel. These are listed at birth in Genesis XXIX, and again shortly before his death (Gen. XLIX). Ezekiel lists the tribes in the distribution of land, substituting Manasseh and Ephraim, as perhaps the sons of deceased fathers, Joseph and Levi; yet in the last chapter in listing the Temple dates he employs the names of the twelve sons, as recounted in Genesis. The symbolic descriptions accompanying the names leave little doubt that they were representative of the twelve astrological types.

In the order of their birth the twelve sons were named Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issacher, Zebulon, Joseph and Benjamin. There is disagreement among authorities as to which Sign represents each one, but none as to the fact that they were astrological. In fact Dan is definitely established as representing Scorpio in Jacob's last blessing, when he said: "Dan is a snake, a serpent in the path, that biteth at the horse's heels so that the rider falleth backward," referring to Scorpio at the heels of the Centaur or Sagittarius.

It is generally considered that the modern prototype of the tribe of judah is the British nation; of Dan, Italy; of Naphtali, the United States; and of Reuben, the Jews.

The twelve layers of the foundation walls of the New Jerusalem (Rev. xxi: 19-20) were builded of:

1. Jasper, an opalescent or greenish stone.

2. Sapphire, a blue, transparent gem.

3. Chalcedony, pale gray, translucent quartz.

4. Emerald, green, transparent beryl.

5. Sardonyx, onyx with layers of sard, a brownish, red chalcedony.

6. Sardius, probably a ruby.

7. Chrysolite, blue-green magnesium iron silicate.

8. Beryl, probably bluish-green or aquamarine.

9. Topaz, a yellow sapphire.

10. Chrysoprase, a light green chalcedony.

11. Jacinth, a stone the color of hyacinth.

12. Amethyst, purple or blue-violet quartz.

From another period we find the Twelve Labors of Hercules, as emblematic of the tasks which Destiny metes out to each of the twelve basic types, whereby to attain to an heroic stature. Hercules, or Heracles, is a mythological hero celebrated for his strength in the performance of super-human tasks, imposed by Eurysthcus because of the hatred of Hera (Juno) for Alcmena, the mother of Hercules by Zeus (Jupiter). After the death of Hercules he was deified as the husband of Hebe.

The Twelve tasks are not listed in the same order by all his- torians, and there are differences of opinion as to the signs to which they pertain, but presumably the hero took the worst traits of each sign and transmuted them into the nobility of which each sign is capable. The "labors" are:

1. Wrestling with and killing by strangulation the invulnerable Nemean lion.

2. Destruction of the Lernean hydra.

3. Capture of the Arcadian or Cerynean hind - or stag.

4. Capture of the boar of Erymanthus, when he fought the Centaurs, killing two friends, Chiron and Pholus. v. Demeter's mysteries (not in this dictionary!)

5. Cleansing the stables of Augeas.

6. Killing of the man-eating Stymphalean birds.

7. Capture of the Cretan bull - afterwards killed by Theseus.

8. Capture of the man-eating mares of the Thracian Diomedes.

9. Seizure of the girdle of Hippolyte, queen of the Amazons.

10. Bringing the oxen of Geryones from Erythria in the Far West. On this adventure he set up the Pillars of Hercules at the Straits of Gibraltar.

11. Bringing the golden apples from the garden of the Hesperides.

12. Carrying Cerberus from Hades to the upper world.

Sign, Aries.

The Ram. The first sign of the zodiac. Its symbol represents the head and horns of the ram. It is a symbol of offensive power - a weapon of the gods, hence an implement of the will. The Babylonians sacrificed rams during the period when the Sun occupied this sign, which occurs annually from March 21 to April 20. Astrologically and astronomically it is the first thirty-degree arc beginning at the point of the Spring Equinox. It is the Leading quality of the Fire element: positive, diurnal, movable, dry, hot, fiery, choleric and violent.

Ruler: Mars. Exaltation: Sun. Detriment: Venus. Fall: Saturn.

Temperamental Aries

...Who works from morn to set of Sun,

...And never likes to be outdone?

...Whose walk is almost like a run?

......Who? Aries.

Symbolic interpretation: Sprouting seed; fire in eruption; a fountain of water; a ram's horns.

Aries is the embodiment of Self, the will to manifest, the adventurous spirit; desire, initiative and courage.

...First from the east, the Ram conducts the year;

...Whom Ptolemy with twice nine stars adorns. - Aratus.

First Decan: activity, adventure, zeal, notoriety, dishonor, misfortune. Second Decan: noble affections as the source of power to sway others - the head joined to the impulses of the heart. It is the decan of Exaltation, in that the Sun is exalted in the nineteenth degree of the Sign.

Third Decan: Propaganda, the spiritual possibilities of the valiant heart at grips with sordid conditions.

Sign, Taurus. The Bull. The second sign of the zodiac. Its symbol represents the head and horns of a bull. The sacred Apis was presumed to be the incarnation of the god Osiris - hence a symbol of a sepulchre or tomb. The Sun's entry into Taurus was celebrated as a Feast of Maya (Maia) - our May Day - the Sun represented by a white bull with a golden disc between his horns, followed by a procession of virgins, exemplifying the fecundity of Nature in Spring. The Sun is in Taurus annually from April 21 to May 20. Astrologically and astronomically it is in the second thirty-degree arc from the Spring Equinox, from 30° to 60° along the Ecliptic. It is the Fixed quality of the Earth element, conferring external will power that, ordinarily passive, and negative, becomes obstinate and unbending when aroused. Negative, nocturnal, cold, dry and melancholy. Ruler: Venus. Exaltation: Moon. Detriment: Mars. Fall: Uranus.

........Headstrong Taurus

...Who smiles through life - except when crossed?

...Who knows, or thinks he knows, the most?

...Who loves good things: baked, boiled or roast?

......Oh, Taurus.

Symbolic interpretation: The head and horns of a bull; the sacred Apis in whom the god Osiris was incarnate; a sepulchre or tomb.

Taurus represents the manifestations of the Self, hence his basic possessions, and inherited tendencies.

...........The mighty Bull trudges the stellar lanes. - Aratus

First Decan: Determination, the soul's exaltation; materialistic and mediumistic tendencies.

Second Decan: Struggle, the conflict for supremacy.

Third Decan: Mastership, triumph over physical limitations and environment; utilizing physical things for spiritual progress.

Sign, Gemini. The Twins. The third sign of the zodiac. Its symbol represents two pieces of wood bound together, symbolical of the unremitting conflict of contradictory mental processes. The Sun is in Gemini annually from May 21 to June 20. Astrologically it is the thirty degree arc immediately preceding the Summer Solstice, marked by the passing of the Sun over the Tropic of Cancer, and occupying a position along the ecliptic from 60° to 90°. It is the Mutable quality of the element: positive, dual.

Ruler: Mercury. Detriment: Jupiter.

................Worrisome Gemini.

...Who's fond of life and jest and pleasure;

...Who vacillates and changes ever?

...Who loves attention without measure?

........Why? Gemini.

Symbolic interpretation: Castor and Pollux; Bohas and Jakin, of Solomon's Temple; the Pillars of Hercules.

Gemini establishes a relationship between the Self and substance, the linkage of rhythm and form.

.....Fair Leda's twins, in time to stars decreed,

.....One fought on foot, one curbed the fiery steed. - Virgil

First Decan: Mastership, activities on the mental plane, deduction after assimilation.

Second Decan: Fidelity, the espousal of progressive causes.

Third Decan: Reason, the power of the objective mind.

Sign: Cancer. The Crab. The fourth sign of the zodiac. Its symbol presumably the folded claws of a crab, probably is intended to symbolize the joining together of a male and female spermatozoa -- as indicative of the most maternal of all the signs. The Sun is in Cancer annually from June 21 to July 22. Astrologically and astronomically it is the first thirty-degree arc following the Summer Solstice, marked by the Sun's passing of the Tropic of Cancer, and occupying a position along the Ecliptic from 90° to 120°). It is the Leading quality of the Water element: negative, cold, moist, phlegmatic, nocturnal, commanding, moveable, fruitful, weak, unfortunate, crooked, mute. Ruler, Moon. Exaltation: Jupiter. Detriment: Saturn. Fall: Mars.

...............Hard-Shelled Sympathetic Cancer.

.......Who changes like a changeful season:

.......Holds fast and lets go without reason?

.......Who is there can give adhesion

............To Cancer?

Symbolic interpretation: The claws of the celestial crab; two spermatozoa intertwined, signifying the male and female seed, implying retirement and nurturing; the crab or scarab.

Cancer expresses the living organism, its capacity to grow.

............Soon as the evening shades prevail

............The Moon takes up the wondrous tale,

............And nightly to the listening Earth

............Proclaims the story of her birth.

....................................- Addison.

First Decan: Moods, strong emotions, poetic and dramatic expression.

Second Decan: Revelation, resourcefulness, energy; powerful emotions; the struggle with sex.

Third Decan: Research, curiosity, discontent, restlessness; love of Nature; a stormy life.

Sign: Leo. The Lion. The fifth sign of the zodiac. Its symbol is possibly an emblem representing the phallus, as used in ancient Dionysian mysteries. It is also an emblem of the Sun's fire, heat or creative energy. The Sun is in Leo annually from July 23 to August 22. Astrologically and astronomically it is the second thirty-degree arc after the Summer Solstice, marked by the Sun's passing of the Tropic of Cancer and occupying a position along the ecliptic from 120° to 150°. It is the Fixed quality of the Fire element, conferring an internal will motivated by an impulse of the heart. It is positive, hot, dry, choleric, eastern, diurnal, commanding, brutish, sterile, broken, changeable, fortunate, strong, hoarse, bitter, and violent. Ruler: Sun. Detriment: Saturn. Fall: Mercury.

...........................Loving Leo

..............Who praises all his kindred do;

..............Expects his friends to praise them too

..............And cannot see their senseless view?

...................Ah, Leo.

Leo exemplifies the principle of cosmic splendor; wherein character defects due to planets in Leo persist through long periods, and good qualities from planets favorably aspecting the Sign are never lost.

..........The Lion flames: There the Sun's course runs hottest.

..........Empty of grain the and fields appear

..........When first the Sun into Leo enters.

...................................................- Aratus

First Decan: Rulership, fiery love, and the desire to rule others; extremes of pleasure whether in love or asceticism.

Second Decan: Reformation, a convincing leader, given to ruthless onslaughts against his enemies; clear vision as to weaknesses in politics and religion.

Third Decan: Ambition, a determination to rise in life, at the sacrifice of anything and anybody.

Sign: Virgo.

The Virgin. The sixth sign of the zodiac. Its symbol is probably a representation of the Girdle of Hymen, and has reference to the Immaculate Conception of a Messiah. It is usually pictured by a virgin holding in her hand a green branch, an car of corn, or a spike of grain. Spica is a star in the constellation of Virgo. Here was commemorated the Festival of Ishtar, goddess of fertility. The Sun is in Virgo annually from August 23 to September 22. Astrologically and astronomically it is the thirty-degree arc immediately preceding the Sun's passing over the Fall Equinoctial point, occupying a position along the Ecliptic from 150° to 180°. It is the Mutable quality of the Earth element: negative, cold, dry, sterile, human; also critical, practical, helpful. Ruler: Mercury. Detriment: Jupiter. Fall: Venus.

...............Critical Virgo

........Who criticizes all she sees:

........Yes, e'en would analyze a sneeze?

........Who hugs and loves her own disease?

................Humpf, Virgo.

Symbolic interpretation: A green branch; an car of wheat or corn; the Immaculate Virgin who gives birth to a world-saviour.

Form and the differentiation of sex. Discrimination through a critical analysis of the fruits of action.

..........But modest Virgo's rays give polished parts,

..........And fill men's breasts with honesty and arts;

..........No tricks for gain, nor love of wealth dispense,

..........But piercing thoughts and winning eloquence.

.........................................................- Manilius

First Decan: Achievement, a good mentality, gigantic tasks.

Second Decan: Experience, an assimilative mind, skilled in diplomacy; great temptations; powers of discernment and compassion; love of worldly honor; susceptible to allurements of the flesh.

Third Decan: Renunciation, the Crown of Thorns: work on behalf of others or of science, without thought of reward; forsakes everything for duty.

Sign: Libra. The Balances, or Scales. The seventh sign of the zodiac. Its symbol, representing the balancing scales, is emblematic of equilibrium and justice. The Sun is in Libra annually from September 23 to October 23. Astrologically and astronomically it is the first thirty-degree arc following the passing of the Sun over the Fall Equinoctial point, occupying a position along the ecliptic from 180° to 210°. It is the Leading quality of the Air element: positive, hot, moist, sweet, obeying: also restless, judicial. Ruler: Venus. Exaltation: Saturn. Detriment: Mars. Fall: Sun.

.................Introspective Libra

.......Who puts you off with promise gay,

.......And keeps you waiting half the day?

.......Who compromises all the way?

..............Sweet Libra.

Symbolic interpretation: The setting Sun; the central part of a balance, signifying equilibrium and justice.

The sign of cosmic reciprocity, of cooperation rather than competition, of consciousness objectified through associations and partnerships.

............Now dreadful deeds

.....Might have ensued, nor only Paradise

.....In this commotion, but the starry cope

.....Of heaven perhaps, or all the elements

.....At least, had gone to wrack, disturbed and torn

.....With violence of this conflict, had not soon

.....The Eternal, to prevent such horrid fray,

.....Hung forth in heaven his golden scales, yet seen

.....Betwixt Astraea and the Scorpion sign.

.....................- John Milton, in Paradise Lost

First Decan: Policy, the quality of wisdom; subtlety in public relations; adventurous in human relations.

Second Decan: Independence, strong individuality; exponent of liberty in thought and action; in rebellion against restrictions and centralized conservatism; espouses progressive movements.

Third Decan: Expiation, a superiority in art and letters; mind often used to enslave others, ending in a fatality.

Sign: Scorpio.

The Scorpion. The eighth sign of the zodiac. Its symbol resembles that of Virgo, but with an arrow on the tail - doubtless to represent the sting. It is symbolized by the asp or serpent, harking back to the serpent of the Garden of Eden, and indicating that the will governs or is governed by the reproductive urge. It is sometimes symbolized by the Dragon, and is frequently linked with the constellation Aquilla - the Eagle. The Sun is in Scorpio annually from October 23 to November 22. Astrologically and astronomically it is the second thirty-degree arc after the Sun's passing of the Fall Equinox, occupying a position along the Ecliptic from 210° to 240°. It is the Fixed quality of the Water element: negative, nocturnal, cold, moist, watery, mute, phlegmatic. Ruler: Mars. Exaltation: Uranus. Detriment: Venus. Fall: Moon.

...................Ultimate Scorpio

.............Who keeps an arrow in his bow,

.............And if you prod, he lets it go?

.............A fervent friend, a subtle foe -

.................Scorpio.

Symbolic interpretation: The legs and tail of: a scorpion: the tail with the sting, the serpent.

The alembic of the Zodiac, the sign of cosmic purpose, Scorpio is a success Sign. Self-contained, self-centered, and concentrated, it usually succeeds in what it sets out to accomplish; great personal magnetism and healing power.

...........Bright Scorpio, armed with poisonous tail, prepares

...........Men's martial minds for violence and for wars.

...........His venom heats and boils their blood to rage,

...........And rapine spreads o'er the unlucky age.

.....................................................- Manilius.

First Decan: Resourcefulness, an excess of creative energy that ever goads to action; creatice imagination; fertility of ideas; absence of repressions.

Second Decan: Responsibility, restrictions in expression; strong character, for good or bad; vivid passions.

Third Decan: Attainment, the Laurel Crown of Victory. Intense intuitions, vivid ideals, the potency of sex to stimulate ideals and ambitions.

Sign: Sagittarius.

The Archer. The ninth sign of the zodiac. In Hindu astrology: Dhanus. Its symbol represents an arrow and a section of a bow, typifying aspiration. It is usually pictured as the Centaur: half horse, half man - representing the conflict between the philosophical mind and the carnal instinct of conquest; also aspiration supported by effort that aims at the stars. Said to have been named for the Babylonian god of war. A typical Sagittarian sentiment is:

.................Go plant a ladder: climb it!

....................Even if it doubles up

.................'Tis better than to lounge below

....................And sip Life's idle cup.

The Sun is in Sagittarius annually from November 23 to December 21. Astrologically and astronomically it is the thirty-degree arc immediately preceding the Sun's passing over the Tropic of Capricorn, occupying a position along the Ecliptic from 240° to 270°. It is the Mutable quality of the Fire element: positive, hot, dry, changeable, bicorporeal, obeying. Ruler: Jupiter. Detriment: Mercury.

.......................Pursuing Sagittarius

.................Who loves the dim religious light:

.................Who always keeps a star in sight?

.................An optimist, both gay and bright -

....................Sagittarius.

Symbolic interpretation: The centaur; an arrow with a short section of the bow, the symbol of enthusiasm and effort, aiming at the stars.

Significator of cosmic progress and abundance, that perverted becomes prodigality.

...............Midst golden stars he stands resplendent now

...............And thrusts the Scorpion with his bended bow.

...................................................- Ovid.

First Decan: Devotion, cosmic consciousness, operating from instinct rather than upon advice.

Second Decan: Expiation, a restless search for new fields to conquer; demands work of a definite importance.

Third Decan: Illumination, piercing the illusion of matter.

Sign: Capricorn.

The mountain-climbing goat. The tenth sign of the zodiac. In Hindu astrology, Makarar - and considered by the ancients to be the most important of all the signs. Is it possible the ancients recognized in the Winter Solstice the point of gravitation that controls the Sun's orbit? Its symbol represents the figure by which the sign is often pictured - that of the forepart of a goat, with the tail of a fish - vaguely suggesting the mermaid. Sometimes also by the sea-goat, or dolphin.

It is said to have a reference to the legend of the goat and the Sun gods.

Dryden makes reference to it:

.....And, what was ominous, that very morn

.....The Sun was entered into Capricorn.

The Sun is in Capricorn annually from December 22 to January 20. Astrologically and astronomically It is the first thirty degrees following the Winter Solstice, marked by the passing of the Sun over the Tropic of Capricorn and occupying a position along the ecliptic from 270° to 300°. It is the Leading quality of the Earth element: nega- tive, nocturnal, cold, dry, obeying. Ruler: Saturn. Exaltation: Mars. Detriment: Moon. Fall: Jupiter.

....................Relentless Capricorn

........Who climbs and schemes for wealth and place,

........And mourns his brother's fall from grace -

........But takes what's due in any case?

.............Safe Capricorn.

Symbolic interpretation: A goat with a fish's tail, signifying extremes of height and depth; changes wrought by time; union of the Christian and Jewish religious dispensations.

The sign of Initiation, of Cosmic Order and justice, wherein the Individuality is developed, and humanity fulfills its obligations to others.

.....................Pitiless

................Siroccos lash the main, when Capricorn

................Lodges the Sun and Zeus sends bitter cold

................To numb the frozen sailors. -Aratus.

First Decan: Organization, coordination, a forerunner of better things; conciliates factions.

Second Decan: Martyrdom; dauntless, again and again it comes back for more; by indefatigable effort, scaling heights of success.

Third Decan: Idealism, natural ability to grasp high ideals, and to express them in concrete form; powerful imagination joined to intensive labor; draws knowledge from the infinite.

Sign: Aquarius.

The Water Bearer. The eleventh sign of the zodiac. Its symbol represents a stream of water, symbolizing the servant of humanity who pours out the water of knowledge to quench the thirst of the world. The Sun is in Aquarius annually from January 21 to February 20. Astrologically and astronomically it is the second thirty-degree arc following the Sun's passing of the Winter Solstice, occupying a position along the Ecliptic from 300° to 330°. It is the Fixed quality of the Air element, in which the will is largely motivated by reasoning processes - whether sound or unsound. It is positive, hot, moist, sanguine, rational and obeying. Ruler: Saturn; or by some moderns: Uranus. Exaltation: Mercury. Detriment: Sun.

.................Deliberate Aquarius

......Who gives to all a helping hand,

......But bows his head to no command -

......And higher laws doth understand?

......Inventor, Genius, Superman - Aquarius.

Symbolic interpretation: Waves, of water, or the vibrationary waves of electricity; parallel lines of force.

The humanitarian principle coordinating spirit and matter, that prompts all acts of unselfish love; that secs, feels, and acts for others as though all were one Self.

............Men at some time are masters of their fates;

............The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,

............But in ourselves, that we are underlings.

..........................Shakespeare, Julius Caesar.

 First Decan: Originality, remarkable knowledge of human nature; progressive tendencies; ever in pursuit of this own ideas; ability to handle people; to impart to others his enthusiasm for advanced ideas and methods.

Second Decan: Inspiration, ability to gain ideas from the invisible; imaginative power; dramatic, convincing.

Third Decan: Repression, reaches highest expression through association with opposite sex; must work with and for others.

Sign: Pisces.

The Fishes. The twelfth sign of the zodiac. Its symbol represents a pair of great sea-horses or sea-lions, yoked together, who dwell in the innermost regions of the sea; symbolical of life after death; of bondage - the inhibiting of self-expression except through others; and of the struggle of the soul within the body. The Sun is in Pisces annually from February 21 to March 20. Astrologically and astronomically it is the thirty degree arc immediately preceding the passing of the Sun over the point of the Spring Equinox occupying a position along the Ecliptic from 330° to 360°. It is the Mutable quality of the Water element; negative, cold, moist, obeying, fruitful; also effeminate, idle, sickly and unfortunate.

Ruler: Jupiter; or by some moderns: Neptune. Exaltation: Venus. Detriment: Mercury. Fall: Mercury.

.................................Soulful Pisces

.............Who prays, and serves, and prays some more;

.............And feeds the beggar at the door -

.............And weeps o'er loves lost long before?

.................Poor Pisces.

Symbolic interpretation: Bondage, captivity; the inhibition of natural expression.

Silent, passionless, all-comprehending, granting to every creature the power to act according to its development and capacity. Its imaginative faculties are a great contradiction. The ability to abstract one's self from his immediate surroundings and throw himself into an imaginary life. often termed the Sign of Self-denial and of withdrawal; of the Messiah or Outcast.

........Westward, and further in the South wind's path,

........The Fishes float; one ever uppermost

........First hears the boisterous coming of the North.

........Both are united by a band.

........Their tails point to an angle

........Filled by a single goodly star,

........Called the Conjoiner of the Fishes' Tails.

..........................................- Aratus

First Decan: Verity, mystic, psychic; seekers of truth through psychic faculties rather than through the exact sciences; detectives of a high order, either materially or spiritually.

Second Decan: Self-sacrifice, lives hemmed around by restrictions, often voluntarily assumed, as the price exacted by the world for the sake of assisting in its progress; gets most from life through alleviating the distress of others.

Third Decan: Vicissitudes; sex decanate of the Sign of Imprisonment; eventful lives; wide variety of careers, recapitulating in their lives the events and conditions expected from other decanates; reach highest expression through psychic research, and in adopting and advocating a regime that best prepares Man for a life after death.

Signs, Classifications of: There are many groupings and classifications of Signs according to a variety of characteristics and effects. It must be emphasized that these are not based solely on the presence of the Sun in the Sign, but may be evidenced in greater or lesser degree by virtue of any accent in the Sign; such as the presence therein of the Ascendant, Moon, several planets, or a strongly aspected planet. Some of the following classifications are ignored by modern authorities:

ASCENDING :: DESCENDING. The Ascending signs are those from Capricorn to Gemini, inclusive, proceeding counter-clockwise in the order of the signs. These are the signs through which the solar sys- tem bodies approach the North celestial pole, and wherein the declination of the Sun is increasing.

The Descending signs are those from Cancer to Sagittarius.

ASCENSION - LONG :: SHORT. The Signs of Long Ascension are those which, due to the obliquity of the Ecliptic, require more than two hours to rise over the Eastern horizon. The Signs of Short Ascension are those which rise in Less than two hours. For example, in Latitude 40°N, approximately that of New York, Leo may require as much as 2h 45m to rise, while Aries and Pisces may rise in 1h 10m. In the Northern hemisphere, the Ascending signs are the signs of Short Ascension; the Descending signs, those of Long Ascension. In the Southern hemisphere, these are reversed. Thus by the law of averages the majority of birth maps in the Northern hemisphere have an Ascendant in an Ascending sign; while in the Southern hemisphere the majority of Ascendants are in a Descending sign.

BARREN :: FRUITFUL. The so-called Barren or Sterile signs, are Gemini, Leo and Virgo; and by some authorities, Aries - with a mild tendency attributed to Sagittarius and Aquarius. Generally classed as the Fruitful signs are those the Water triplicity, Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces, in that the Lord of the Ascendant or of the Fifth house in a fruitful sign, or such sign on the Asc. or the cusp of the Fifth, are taken as an indication of the probability of offspring. Taurus and Capricorn, and by some Libra and Aquarius, are classed as Moderately Fruitful.

BESTIAL :: HUMAN. The Bestial Signs are those named after animals: Aries, Taurus, Leo, Scorpio, Capricorn and the last half of Sagittarius; also spoken of as feral, or four-footed. The Human Signs are Gemini, Virgo and Aquarius, and the first half of Sagittarius, so-called to distinguish them from Signs named after animals. Sepharial insists that the first half of Sagittarius is the animal portion and that the human portion is the last half, and cites in proof Jacob's words concerning Dan. (Genesis 49:17) In a different sense Ptolemy rated Libra a humane Sign, since he discovered that the Lord of the Ascendant posited in Libra conferred a humane disposition.

BICORPOREAL. The Double bodied, or dual Signs: Gemini, Virgo, Sagittarius and Pisces.

BITTER :: SWEET. Older authorities classed Aries, Leo and Sagittarius as hot, fiery and bitter, and often referred to them as the Bitter Signs. The Sweet Signs, Gemini, Libra and Aquarius, were presumably sweet-tempered.

BOREAL. From Boreas, the north wind. The six northern Signs: Aries to Virgo inclusive.

BROKEN AND WHOLE. Perfect :: Imperfect. Signs deemed more likely to produce distortions of the body or limbs, when in the Ascendant and unfavorably aspected, are variously known as Broken, Mutilated, or Imperfect Signs. These are Leo, Scorpio and Pisces, to which many authorities add Capricorn and Cancer. Any rising Sign may have its defects if severely afflicted planets are posited therein. The Whole or Perfect Signs are Gemini, Libra and Aquarius because those born thereunder are said to be strong, robust and less liable to accidents.

BRUTISH. Leo and the last half of Sagittarius were so classified, because unfavorable as cots accenting these arcs appear to produce savage, coarse mannered, intractable and inhuman traits.

CHANGEABLE. Certain Signs were so classed because they are said to change their natures according to their positions. These are:

.........................In the East.......In the West

...Taurus................Hot...............Cold

...Gemini................Hot and dry.......Cold and moist

...Leo...................Hot and dry.......Hot and Moist

...Virgo.................Hottish Cold......Moist

...Sagittarius...........Cold and moist....Hot and dry

...Capricorn.............Cold and dry......Cold and moist

Wilson in his dictionary calls these foolish distinctions.

CHOLERIC: said of the Fire Signs, Aries, Leo and Sagittarius.

COLD::HOT. THE COLD SIGNS: The ancients classed all the even-numbered Signs as Cold Signs, but most modern authorities list only Cancer and Capricorn in this classification. The odd-numbered Signs were termed Hot Signs. The modern terms Positive and Negative have largely displaced the designations Hot and Cold.

COMMANDING. v. Northern.

COMMON. v. Mutable.

CONCEPTIVE. The four Fixed Signs: Taurus, Leo, Scorpio and Aquarius.

CROOKED. Taurus, Capricorn, Pisces are listed by Wilson as liable to produce crooked legs or arms when an afflicted Moon is posited in one of them; yet he scoffs at the classification.

DESCENDING. v. Ascending.

DIURNAL. v. Positive.

DRY AND MOIST. The Dry Signs are Aries, Taurus, Leo, Virgo, Sagittarius and Capricorn; the Moist, Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces, and by some, Gemini, Libra and Aquarius.

DUAL, or DOUBLE-BODIED. v. Bicorporeal.

DUMB. v. Mute.

EFFEMINATE. The Sign Pisces is so characterized by Wilson.

EQUINOCTIAL :: TROPICAL. The Equinoctial Signs are Aries and Libra: those marked by the Sun's passing of the Equinox at the beginning of Spring and Autumn. The Tropical signs are Cancer and Capricorn: so called because they limit the course of the Sun, which reverses its direction after entrance therein, and thereafter diminishes in elevation. The Sun's passing over the Tropic of Cancer announces the beginning of summer; and of Capricorn, winter.

ESTIVAL (aestival) :: HIEMAL (Hyemal). The Estival Signs are those belonging to the Summer; the Hiemal, the Winter.

FEMININE. v. Negative.

FERAL. v. Bestial.

FLEXED. Applied by Sepharial to the Mutable Signs (q.v.).

FORTUNATE. v. Positive.

FOUR-FOOTED: Aries, Taurus, Leo, Sagittarius, Capricorn.

FRUITFUL. v. Barren.

HIEMAL, or Hyemal. v. Estival.

HOARSE or MUTE. According to Manly Hall these are Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces.

HOT. v. Cold.

HUMAN. v. Bestial.

IDLE. Pisces is so classed by Wilson.

LONG ASCENSION. v. Ascension.

LUXURIOUS. Aries is so classed, because of a propensity to luxury and intemperance.

MASCULINE. v. Positive.

MELANCHOLY. The Earth Signs Taurus, Virgo and Capricorn are so classified by Wilson.

MOIST. v. Dry.

MOVEABLE. The Cardinal Signs.

MUTE. The Signs of the Water element, Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces. Also termed Dumb Signs, in that afflictions to planets therein often produce speech defects.

NEGATIVE. v. Positive.

NOCTURNAL. v. Positive.

NORTHERN :: SOUTHERN. Northern, or Commanding Signs constitute the first six, Aries to Virgo inclusive since planets posited therein are said to command, while those in the opposite Signs obey. They are considered to be more powerful because nearer to our Earth, hence by some are presumed to confer the ability to command. The scientist who first applied the term possibly and perhaps properly assumed that this portion of the Earth's orbit lay above the plane of the Sun's orbit. The Southern, or Obeying Signs are those from Libra to Pisces inclusive.

Strictly speaking, the Northern Signs are those in which the Sun has North declination from March 21 to September 23; the Southern Signs, those in which the Sun has South declination, from September 23 to March 21. The commanding and obeying appears to apply more properly to Houses than Signs. v. Ptolemaic Astrology.

OBEYING. The Southern Signs. v. Northern.

PERFECT. v. Broken.

POSITIVE :: NEGATIVE, or MASCULINE :: FEMININE. The odd-numbered Fire and Air Signs are considered to be more fortunate when rising, and are spoken of as the Positive, Masculine, Diurnal or Fortunate Signs; while the even-numbered Earth and Water Signs are termed the Negative, Feminine, Nocturnal or Unfortunate Signs. For some untenable reason the ancients deemed the Negative Signs to be unfortunate in the general tenor of their lives; Capricorn, particularly, possibly due to its Saturn rulership. The extent to which good aspects from well-placed planets, and the reverse, can overbalance the intrinsic nature of the Sun Sign has largely thrown these classifications into the discard. Nevertheless it can readily be seen that for objective results, public acclaim and personal glamor the Fire and Air Signs hold a certain advantage over the more self- contained and introspective Earth and Water Sign groups. An ancient aphorism held that the first half of each Positive Sign and the last half of each Negative Sign is dominated by the Sun and thereby has a tendency to lightness of complection; while the reverse half is dominated by the Moon and tends to the brunette types.

RUMINANT. Those named after animals that chew the cud: Aries, Taurus and Capricorn. Some authorities advise against the administering of drugs during the Moon's transit through these Signs.

SHORT ASCENSION. v. Ascension.

SOUTHERN. v. Northern.

SPEAKING. v. Voice.

STERILE: v. Barren.

STRONG :: WEAK.

Cancer, Capricorn and Pisces are termed Weak Signs; and Scorpio and Aquarius, said to give strong, athletic bodies, are termed Strong Signs. One can see why Cancer and Pisces, which compare to the Fourth and Twelfth Houses, might be reckoned weak and unfortunate, but why Capricorn should be so classed is less apparent unless because of its rulership by Saturn. These terms are little used by modern authorities. Some class all of the Fixed or Foundation signs, as Strong Signs, in that they confer strength of character, fixity of purpose, and general ruggedness of constitution.

SWEET. Gemini, Libra and Aquarius. v. Bitter.

SYMPATHETIC. Those of the same polarity, consisting of each opposition Sign: Air and Fire, or Earth and Water. Some confine the term to those Signs which together form either a trine or a sextile. Planets in trine are always in the same element; those in sextile, are in elements that are sympathetic.

TROPICAL. Cancer and Capricorn. v. Equinoctial.

VIOLENT. Those ruled by the malefics, or wherein the malefics are exalted, viz: Aries, Libra, Scorpio, Capricorn and Aquarius; also applied to parts of Signs in which are any remarkably violent stars, such as Caput Algol in 25° Taurus. v. Stars.

VITAL. The Fire Signs, Aries, Leo and Sagittarius; so termed not because they have more vitality, but because they spend it to excess - hence are often prone to anemia and nervous debility. Since the measure of lung capacity in actual use is the index to vital energy, one must limit this classification to a certain psychological quality of vitality or "punch."

VOICE. Gemini, Libra, the latter part of Virgo, and the first part of Sagittarius; so-called because when posited upon the Ascendant, with Mercury or the Moon well placed and unafflicted, it is deemed to indicate one with the capacity to become a good speaker or orator. Some authorities include Aquarius.

WATERY. The Signs of the Watery Triplicity: Cancer, Scorpio and Pisces.

WHOLE. Taurus, Gemini, Leo, Scorpio, Sagittarius and Aquarius; also termed Strong Signs, by Alvidas, since the Sun in these Signs, unafflicted or rising, gives a strong body and greater powers of endurance.

Significator. A planet may be taken as a significator of a person or of an event, or of affairs ruled by a House. Its strength by virtue of its Sign and House position and its relationship by aspects are then consulted in arriving at a judgment concerning a desired condition. In general the strongest planet in the Figure, usually the ruler of the Ascendant, is taken as the Significator of the native. Similarly the Ruler of the Sign on the cusp of the Second House is taken as the Significator of wealth, of the Seventh House of the partner, of the Eighth of the partner's wealth, and so on. Sepharial speaks of the Sun, Moon, Ascendant and Midheaven as Significators, but Alan Leo prefers to speak of them as Moderators, and includes Fortuna. The Sun and Midheaven are by some authorities deemed to have affinity as Significators of the honor, credit, and standing of the subject of the Figure, or of the surviving male head of the family; the Moon and Ascendant to have affinity as Significators of the personal fortunes, changes and accidents befalling the native; Mercury, of his learning, intellectual accomplishments or business acumen; Venus, of his love-affairs, social arts and accomplishments; Mars, of strikes, contentions, enterprises and risks; Jupiter, of wealth and increase; and Saturn, of disease, loss, death and decay. In this use there is danger of confusing the distinction between a Significator, as representing persons in Horary Astrology, and Promittors as representative of things promised or desired; but every planet in the Figure can be taken not only as the significator of something, but also as the Promittor of something.

Sinister.  A left-handed aspect - not, however, with reference to the proper motion of the aspecting body, but to its apparent motion. v. Dexter.

Slow of Course. v. Planetary Motions.

Sol. The Sun.

Solar Astrology. The presumption that the Solar Horoscope is of value only as a make-shift when an exact hour of birth is unobtainable, is rapidly giving way to a realization of its genuine merits. Strictly speaking, it is not an hour-scope but a day-scope; yet it is the same cycle of hour-to-hour dally experiences through a rising series of sensitive points, whether it begins with an ascendant degree or with the omnipotent Sun degree.

When the Arabians devised their system of Parts, it evidenced a realization of the importance of the relationship between a planet's position and the Sun's position. The Part of Fortune merely locates in a Rising Sign Figure the position the Moon occupies in a Solar chart. Similarly the Part of Commerce or Understanding is the Solar house position of Mercury: the Part of Love, that of Venus; of Passion, that of Mars; of Increase, that of Jupiter; of Fatality, that of Saturn; to which the moderns have added the Part of Catastrophe, that of the Uranus position; of Treachery, that of Neptune; and of Organization, that of Pluto.

The Sign positions of the planets are an important clement in any horoscopic analysis and these are the same in a Solar chart as in a chart based upon an ascending degree. Likewise the birth aspects, and even the aspects of transitory planets to birth sensitivities, remain the same. Thus the entire daily cycle of sensitive points is identical, except for those of or based upon the ascendant and Midheaven.

To appraise the relative importance of Ascending degree and the Sun's degree as a point of beginning, consider the first return of the Ascendant degree on the second day of life: With the Sun advanced to a new position, one senses the incompleteness of the sidereal cycle, and the added four minutes necessary to complete a solar day. One must either advance the Ascendant by one degree, or retard the Sun four minutes. The next day and each succeeding day repeats the process. A year later the Ascendant has gained a day, but while one can revise the memory of a Rising degree, one cannot order the Sun to stand still.

In a few years the unvarying regularity of the Sun's return begins to exercise a rapidly augmented potency. Since life is lived by the Sun - the Giver of Life in a keenly actual sense - it is no make-shift that one gradually finds he reacts less and less to the reiterations of the advancing Ascendant cycle, and more and more to the eternally unchanging cycle of Solar returns.

This helps to explain why the Rising Sign influence is so largely physical, pertaining to bodily growth during the first plastic weeks and months of life, and why individuality and character take on the quality of the Sun Sign as we approach adulthood. It also explains why some young people undergo such radical changes of individuality on their approach to the age at which they are said to have attained their majority, for when an Aquarian Sun takes command over a Pisces-rising boy, it is a shock to his family, his friends and himself; while the transition from a Gemini-rising boy to one with the Sun in Libra is so imperceptible as hardly to occasion comment.

The Solar chart is in reality only an assumption that to the native of each Sun Sign the independent absorption of life-giving energy begins with its first sunrise. The cycle of sensitivities which daily passes over the horizon is a vital experience, but the cycle is the same cycle whether one begins with the Sun, or with an annually-advanced ascendant. That you eventually count your laps on the daily and annual course by the Sun instead of the Ascendant, makes less difference than at first appears - otherwise a removal to another time zone would create a far greater condition of pandemonium, and entail a tar greater degree of readjustment than seems proven by experience. The Solar House cusps have added significance in the fact that each cusp represents an aspect to the Sun, in a series that is unalterable and unvarying

Secondary progressions can even be applied to the Solar chart, and despite the lack of enthusiasm with which some astrologers contemplate the Solar chart, it is doubtful if a tenth-of-one-percent of them compute primary directions. To what extent the Table of Houses is fallacious, which system of cusp division is the more nearly correct, whether to employ the Latitude of birth or of domicile, and doubt concerning the authenticity of the birth moment, are only a few of the embarrassing questions obviated by its use. The Arabian astrologers discovered the importance of the solar houses, as demonstrated in their system of Arabian Points (q.v.).

As Astrology evolves out of the realm of prestidigitation, wherein it seeks only to impress by the predicting of specific events, into that of a psychological diagnosis of predispositions, wherein it defineates reactions to cosmic stimuli in terms of traits, trends and tendencies, the Solar chart wig become increasingly acceptable as a true cycle of adult experience, and a reliable index to the character development of the matured individuality.

Solar Cycle, or Cycle of the Sun. A 28-year period applicable to the Julian calendar, in which the first day of the year is restored to the same day of the week. Since the days of the week are 7, and the number of years in an intercalary period are 4, their product (4 x 7 = 28) must include all possible combinations. At the end of each cycle, the Dominical letters return again in the same order on the same days of the month. v. Calendar.

Solar Day The time clasping between two consecutive passages of the Sun over a fixed point on the Earth. It is in excess of one complete revolution, by 1° of longitude or 4 minutes of time. v. Day.

Solar Equilibrium. A term used by recent astrologers with reference to the Solar Figure: one cast for sunrise on a given day, but with houses of uniformly thirty degrees each.

Solar Revolution. A horoscopical figure erected for the moment in any year when the Sun has reached the exact Longitude it occupies in the Radix. From this figure and from aspects of Radical planets to significators - Sun, Moon, Ascendant and Midheaven degrees - in the Solar Revolution map predictions are made cov- ering the ensuing year. For example, the Solar Revolution Moon conjunct radical Mars, indicates a year ominous of accidents - especially on the days on which the Sun or Moon conjoins Mars. Also it can be judged within itself, in which case, current Solar transits should be observed.

Revolutionary Additives. For computing the time of the return of the Sun to its radical longitude, the following table gives the amounts to be added to the sidereal time of the meridian of the radical map to ascertain the meridian for the solar return for any given year of life:

.....................REVOLUTIONARY ADDITIVES.....................

YEARS H.  M.  |YEARS H.  M.  |YEARS H.  M.  |YEARS H.  M.  |YEARS H.  M.  |

..1... 5..49..|.19...14..36..|.37...23..23..|.55....8..10..|.73...16..56..|

..2...11..38..|.20...20..25..|.38....5..12..|.56...13..59..|.74...22..45..|

..3...17..28..|.21....2..14..|.39...11...2..|.57...19..48..|.75....4..35..|

..4...23..17..|.22....8...3..|.40...16..51..|.58....1..37..|.76...10..24..|

..5....5...6..|.23...13..53..|.41...22..40..|.59....7..27..|.77...16..13..|

..6...10..55..|.24...19..43..|.42....4..29..|.60...13..16..|.78...22...2..|

..7...16..45..|.25....1..32..|.43...10..19..|.61...19...5..|.79....3..52..|

..8...22..34..|.26....7..21..|.44...16...8..|.62....0..54..|.80....9..41..|

..9....4..23..|.27...13..11..|.45...21..57..|.63....6..44..|.81...15..30..|

.10...10..12..|.28...19...0..|.46....3..46..|.64...12..33..|.82...21..19..|

.11...16...2..|.9.....0..49..|.47....9..36..|.65...18..22..|.83....3...9..|

.12...21..51..|.30....6..38..|.48...15..23..|.66....0..11..|.84....8..59..|

.13....3..40..|.31...12..28..|.49...21..14..|.67....6...1..|.85...14..48..|

.14....9..29..|.32...18..17..|.50....3...3..|.68...11..50..|.86...20..37..|

.15...15..19..|.33....0...6..|.51....8..53..|.69...17..39..|.87....2..27..|

.16...21...8..|.34....5..55..|.52...14..42..|.70...23..28..|.88....8..16..|

.17....2..57..|.5....11..45..|.53...20..31..|.71....5..18..|.89...14...5..|

.18....8..46..|.36...17..34..|.54....2..20..|.72...11...7..|.90...19..54..|

Continental astrologers use a table in which the Revolutionary Additives are given in degrees, to be added to the degree of the Midheaven in the Radical Figure to yield the Midheaven degree of the Solar Revolution Figure. The relative cusps are then taken from the Table of Houses.

...........Revolutionary Additives, in Degrees.........

....y...........y...........y...........y...........y....

....1....87.....16...315.....31...183.....46....51.....61...279

....2...174.....17....42.....32...270.....47...138.....62.....6

....3...262.....18...130.....33...358.....48...226.....63....94

....4...349.....19...217.....34....85.....49...313.....64...181

....5....76.....20...304.....35...172.....50....40.....65...268

....6...163.....21....31.....36...259.....51...127.....66...355

....7...250.....22...118.....37...346.....52...214.....67....82

....8...338.....23...206.....38....74.....53...302.....68...170

....9....65.....24...293.....39...161.....54....29.....69...257

...10...152.....25....20.....40...248.....55...116.....70...344

...11...239.....26...107.....41...335.....56...203.....71....71

...12...326.....27...194.....42....62.....57...290.....72...158

...13....54.....28...282.....43...150.....58....18.....73...245

...14...141.....29.....9.....44...273.....59...105.....74...333

...15...228.....30....96.....45...324.....60...192.....75....60

By referring this meridian to the sidereal time at noon on the given anniversary of birth, one determines the time before or after noon for which to erect the figure, and to calculate the planets' places.

An adaptation of this principle is to cast the Figure for the day when the Sun is nearest to the longtitude it had at birth, and the hour and minute when R.A. of the M.C. is the same as at birth, whereby the cusps will be the same as those in the Radix. The one method employs the Sun's position as the measure of time, and is equivalent to placing the transitory positions of the planets in a Solar Nativity; the other, to placing the transiting positions of the planets in a Geocentric Nativity. If Primary Directions are to be considered within the year, from either Figure, the time of day on which the revolution will be complete (either the Sun's return or the Ascendant's return), and the places of the planets, must be computed with great exactness for that precise moment. Otherwise it suffices to insert in the Nativity, the current noon positions of the transiting planets.

Modern practice considers that a lingering aspect from a Transitor, a slow-moving major planet in transit, to a radical sensitivity produces displacement of equilibrium; which is activated by an additional aspect from a Culminator, a faster moving body such as the Sun or Moon, to the same or another planet, thereby precipitating the externalization. The interpretation, however, is based not alone upon the aspected planet, but upon the entire radical configuration in which it participates, and which is thereby altered by the addition of the transiting planet's influence.

Solar Semicircle. Leo to Capricorn, inclusive.

Solar System. The cosmic influences by which a dweller on the Earth is conditioned (v. Cosmic Conditioning), and motivated, are almost exclusively confined to forces present and manifest within the Solar System, which consists of the Sun, and the planets which revolve in orbits around the Sun chiefly in response to its gravitational pull. The Sun is the sole source of radiating energy that makes possible every form of life found on the Earth. This energy is received, both direct and by reflection from the planets and the Moon. Due, however, to the varying chemical constituency of the Sun's reflectors, each absorbs certain frequencies of the Solar emanations, and delivers to the Earth an altered spectrum. The Sun's energy raditaion is estimated in a continuous flow of 80,000 horsepower from each square year of its surface.

Around it are so far discovered ten planetary cycles, the bodies of which emit no light except that reflected from the sun. These, in order from the Sun outward, i.e: Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, the Asteroids, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. The astrological significance of the Asteroid has not received sufficient study to warrant any judgments in reference thereto, but it is generally presumed that they consist of the matter for what was intended to be another planet in the vacant orbit between Mars and Jupiter, but which was dispersed by the influence of the ponderous nearby planet Jupiter.

Astronomers and astrologers have speculated on the possible existence of an intramercurial planet, so close to the Sun as to be lost in its rays and indistinguishable by any known method - but this is mere hypothesis. As three of the known planets have been discovered since i781, and Pluto as late as 1930, there is an everpresent possibility that additional outside planets may yet be discovered. In this connection it should not be forgotten that Pythagoras, on both astrological and mathematical evidence, contended some 2500 years ago that there must be 10 planets in the Solar atom. From Pythagorcus came the concept that Copernicus developed into his heliocentric theory, and that gave Einstein, no doubt, a Vision of the Creator as a mathematician rather than an engineer.

In occult teaching there are in our solar system ten schemes of evolution, each presided over by a planetary Logos. As the ancients knew of only the Sun, Moon and five planets, each system consisted of a chain of seven globes, and each chain had passed through seven incarnations. Their idea of ten schemes of evolution was a further prophetic indication of the three additional plants since discovered.

However, with the inclusion of the Earth and the orbit of the asteroids, we now recognize in the solar system twelve planetary cycles: the Sun, moving in an undetermined orbit around some remote galactic center; the 8 planets, the Earth and the asteroids, moving in 10 channels around the Sun; and the Moon moving in an orbit around the Earth.

Astronomically the Moon is too tiny an object for inclusion in such an enumeration. Besides, there are other moons revolving around other planets in our solar atom. Astrologically, however, our Moon, because of its nearness to us, assumes an importance that is disproportionate to its size, while the moons of other planets have no significance for us, other than as they enter into the composite ray reflected in our direction.

In this general picture of our solar system we find three distinct and known forces in evidence: energy radiations, orbital motion, and gravitation.

Considering the Sun, particularly, one must take cognizance of the fact that its influence as a source of energy radiation should bc entirely disassociated from the influence it exerts by way of gravitational pull and orbital motion. Experiment with the little ball on the end of a rubber string, and you will find that a horizontal motion of the hand will change the vertical motion of the ball into a circular motion that can become an orbit. While the Sun is exerting a pull upon the Earth, it is moving at right angles to the direction of its pull. If in response to the pull the Sun exerts upon the Earth at this particular moment we were to plunge precipitately in that direction, by the time we arrived the Sun would be gone. From the continuance of such a pursuit an elliptical orbit must necessarily result. However, both radiation and the gravitation from the Sun, considered alone, are constants. To introduce differences in different portions of the Earth's orbit, other and changing factors must be introduced.

As to the Sun's energy radiations, we have long recognized the differentiating effect of variously combined reflections from the planets, each of which by virtue of its chemical components absorbs certain bands of the spectrum and thus emits an altered ray. Hence aspects are the differentiating factor that alters the constant of the Sun's energy radiation.

To find the differentiating element in the constant of the Sun's gravitational influence, suppose we consider relationship between two known orbits: those of the Moon and the Earth, and the Earth around the Sun.

The constant of the Earth-Moon gravitation is altered by the Sun-Earth gravitation whereby at the lunation, the Sun and the Earth are pulling from opposite sides of the Moon, while at the Full Moon, both Sun and Earth are pulling in the same direction. Furthermore from the dichotome at the end of the First Quarter to that at the end of the Third the Moon's travel is faster than that of the Earth, its own motion added to that of the Earth, while in the other half of its orbit it is traveling slower than the Earth. Thus the dichotomes are the points where the Moon's orbit intersects that of the Earth.

Applying this to the Earth-Sun orbit, one sees that the direction of the Sun's travel, and at right angles thereto the source of the gravitational pull that governs the Sun's motion, are the missing factors necessary to an explanation of the changes of conditioning in the various arcs of the Earth's annual orbit, the so-called signs of the zodiac, the heliarcs into which the Ecliptic path is divided.

If we assume 0° Capricorn to be the direction of the Galactic Center, then the Aries-Libra cusps must represent the line of the Sun's travel. The fact is that the Galactic Center has to be 0 Capricorn, or astrology needs revision. Assuming this factor, let us see what we discover: The inclination of the North polar axis in the direction of the Galactic Center suddenly appears to have a plausible justification. Also it explains the coincidence of the Equinox (when the inclination is at right angles to the radius) and the points where the Earth crosses the Sun's path.

Tracing some of the conditions the Earth encounters in the course of one annual cycle, we see that when the Sun is at 0° Capricorn the Earth is actually at the opposite point 0° Cancer, hence at its greatest distance from G.C. From this point it moves toward and in the direction of G.C. accelerating to its maximum speed at the midway point, and slowing down to a dead center when the Sun reaches 0° Cancer, where it reverses its motion and for the next half year travels against the gravitational pull from G.C. This identifies four points at which a motion in a given direction comes to a dead center and reverses itself. From Aries 0° to Libra 0° the Earth would travel slower than the Sun-its orbital motion subtracted from that of the Sun; and faster than the Sun during the other half of the orbit. Also that with the Sun at Capricorn 0° the Earth is farthest from the Galactic center, hence the gravitational pull from the Sun and the G.C. operates in the same direction. After traveling half its orbit in the direction of the Galactic Center the Earth comes to the closest point where the gravitational pull from the two centers comes from opposite sides of the Earth.

In the motion from these points of reversal to the opposite points, there can be recognized a division into two periods: one of acceleration, and one of retardation. The motion from Capricorn o, in reference to gravitation, reaches its maximum at the point where the motion against momentum reverses itself; also at a midway point in that quadrant the second motion balances the first-after which the first slows down to a full stop, and reverses its direction.

Thus there results a natural subdivision of the year in accordance with this formula:

 ...............PORTION OF ORBIT.........

|Sun in-............|....................|

|....Aries..........| M c 1 a :: G w 3 r |

|....Taurus.........| M c 2 a :: G w 2 r |

|....Gemini.........| M c 3 a :: G w 1 r |

|....Cancer.........| M c 3 r :: G c 1 a |

|....Leo............| M c 2 r :: G c 2 a |

|....Virgo..........| M c 1 r :: G c 3 a |

|....Libra..........| M w 1 a :: G c 3 r |

|....Scorpio........| M w 2 a :: G c 2 r |

|....Sagittarius....| M w 3 a :: G c 1 r |

|....Capricorn......| M w 3 r :: G w 1 a |

|....Aquarius.......| M w 2 r :: G w 2 a |

|....Pisces.........| M w 1 r :: G w 3 a |

|...................|....................|

G - Gravitation: w - with, or c - contra to attraction from Galactic Center

M - Momentum:... w - with, or c - contra to the Sun's orbital motion

at: 1, minimum; 2, mean; or 3, maximum rate of speed.

a - acceleration

r - retardation

From this it can be judged that the line of demarcation between any Mutable Sign and the Cardinal Sign which follows it, is a sharp and thinly drawn line; while those between a Cardinal and Fixed Sign, and between a Fixed and Mutable Sign, are a gradual merging or dissolving effect which culminates in a complete balancing of two forces in the middle of each Fixed Sign. Therefore one finds occasion for consideration of cuspal influences only in connection with the intermediate cusps, in which case the orb should be fairly large - as much perhaps as five degrees on either side. This would mean that a person with the Sun in 25° Aries or in 5° Taurus, or any of the degrees between, would be spoken of as an Aries-Taurus cusp; and so on for all but the Cardinal cusps.

In addition, there is undoubtedly a third-dimensional motion above and below the plane of the Sun's travel. Latest astronomical opinion is that the 14° band in which the planets revolve is inclined by approximately 60° to a similar band in which the stars in the Milky Way galaxy revolve around the Galactic Center. This would appear to indicate that the locating of the Earth's nodes of intersection of the Sun's orbital plane are a third factor that is necessary to a true three-dimensional analysis of the conditioning one acquires by virtue of birth when the Earth is in some one of these twelve heliarcs of its annual travel.

There are thus (a) four arcs in which there is a reversal of motion and a new start in the opposite direction; viz: The four Initiating Cardinal or Leading signs: (b) four arcs wherein two motions strike a balance, the Executive or Fixed signs; and (c) four arcs wherein a motion is retarding to a dead center, preparing for a reversal of motion; the Deductive Common or Mutable signs. These three groups of four signs each are generally spoken of as the Quadruplicities or Qualities.

Another and quite different relationship exists between the arc in which a motion starts, that wherein it is balanced by another motion, and that wherein the overcoming motion slows to a dead stop. These four groups of three signs each, are spoken of as the four basic types: the Elements or the Triplicities. These are:

..........Inspirational type: Spirit - aspirational, imaginative.

..........Emotional type:.....Soul - intuitive, passionate.

..........Mental type:........Mind - reasoning, intellectual.

..........Practical type:.....Body - matter-of-fact, materialistic but sensory.

Thus of each of the four types, there are three qualities - Initiating, Executive and Deductive, as follows:

Qualities

..............Inspirational.....Emotional.....Mental.........Practical

Initiating....1 Aries...........4 Cancer......7 Libra.......10 Capricorn

Executive.....5 Leo.............8 Scorpio....11 Aquarius.....2 Taurus

Deductive.....9 Sagittarius....12 Pisces......3 Gemini.......6 Virgo

Out of the cosmic conditioning inherent in these formulas, it is possible to deduce delineations of each of the twelve arcs, that to an amazing extent are in accord with the analyses that are the cumulative result of some 50 centuries of observation.

Solar System bodies: Sun.

To the Egyptians it was Ra, Amen, Aten, or Osiris, each with a different religious significance. The winged globe in Egyptian art is a familiar representation of the solar orb. Atenism, the first impersonal concept of the Deity, worshipped only "the power which came from the Sun," and forbade any emblem or idol that would tend to substitute a symbol for the thing itself. To The Persian it was Mithras; to the Hindu, Brahma; to the Chaldean, Bel; and to the Greek, Adonis and Apollo. In Free-masonry Sol-om-on, the name of the Sun in three languages, is an expression of light.

Actually the Sun has no visible motion, although we know it moves because nothing in the universe can hold its place by standing still. However, ancient astrology dealt with things as they appear rather than as they are; just as the wind which blows South was to the ancients the North wind because it came out of the North. Therefore, when astrology speaks of the Sun's motion we must not overlook the fact that what we actually mean is the Earth's motion which we measure by or describe in the terms of the apparent motion of the Sun. That the ancient masters knew this, can be seen in the order of the planetary hours: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus - the placing of the Sun between Mars and Venus clearly showing that it represents the Earth in this sequence.

The Nodes at which the Earth intercepts the plane of the Sun's equator, lie at heliocentric longitudes 75° and 255°, which the Earth crosses in Junc and December. The Sun's North Pole is inclined toward the Earth by 7° in July, and away from the Earth by 7° in January. The plane of the Sun's orbit is not known, but since the Milky Way galaxy is a flat disc of stars it is probable that the Sun's orbit does not deviate to any great extent from the average of the stars within the galaxy - similar to the orbits of the planets which lie within a narrow band that extends some 7° on either side of the Ecliptic.

We do know that the plane of our ecliptic is inclined to the plane of the Milky Way galaxy at a steep angle of approximately 50° hence the three-dimensional motion of the Earth with reference to the orbit of the Sun must involve a considerable degree of elevation and depression above and below the plane of the Sun's orbit; also that there must be a considerable declination of the Sun's pole with reference to its orbit, not unlike that of the Earth's pole to which we ascribe our seasonal variations. Because of this, the Nodes where the Earth intersects the Sun's equator are not the same as those at which the Earth intersects the plane of the Sun's orbit. It is not improbable that the latter nodes may pursue a precessional cycle not unlike that of the Moon's Nodes.

The Sun is a variable star, unlike any other star yet discovered. It revolves from East to West; i.e., looking down on its North pole, it moves counter-clockwise. Its period of rotation at the Equator is 24.65 d.; at the pole, 34 d. Its mean period as seen by the Earth is 25.38 d.; but its synodical period of rotation is 27.25 d.

The diameter of the Sun is 864,392 miles. Driving in an automobile at the rate of 500 miles a day, it would require 14 y, 10 m, 2 d, to circle the Sun.

Its weight in tons is 2,200 plus 24 ciphers, or 2.2 octillion tons. In bulk it could contain 1,300,000 Earths.

The Sun-Earth distance - 92,897,416 miles - is taken as a unit of measurement of inter-solar system space, and is known as one Astronomical Unit. Its light requires 498.59 seconds, or about 8 1/3 minutes, to reach the Earth. To travel the distance by an airplane at 300 miles per hour, would consume 35 years; to walk at 4 m.p.h., 6300 y.

Hugh Rice, astronomer of the Hayden Planetarium of New York, says, "The Sun is the source of almost all the power, heat and life on the Earth." Heat reaching the Earth amounts to 1.94 calories per minute, per square mile of the Earth's surface. One caloric is the amount of heat required to raise one gram of water by one degree of temperature.

In terms of power the Sun's radiation amounts to 1.51 h.p. per sq. yard of the Earth's surface, or 643,000 h.p. per sq. mile. Were it not for loss by curvature and reflection it would amount to 4,690,000 h.p. per sq. mile, or for the entire surface of the Earth, 127 plus twelve ciphers, or 127 trillions of horsepower - more than we could possibly use. Actually our absorption amounts to from 0.34 to 0.38 h.p. per sq. yard, or the equivalent of a 60-watt lamp in continuous operation. When it is recalled that the Earth as seen from the Sun is a point in the sky apparently less than half as large as Venus when it is our brilliant evening star, and that this is the tiny object which intercepts a total of 230 million-million horsepower of solar radiation, it becomes evident that the Sun radiates an incomprehensible amount of energy. Indeed, we find that it radiates nearly 2,200,000,000 times as much energy as that which lights and warms and gives life to our planet, and hundreds of millions of times as much energy as is intercepted by all the planets, satellites, and planetoids combined.

Most of the Sun has a temperature of a million degrees. Its energy travels at the rate of 186,271 miles per second. The Sun's heat would melt a block of ice the size of the Earth in 16.6 minutes; a block of iron of the same size, in Less than 3 hours. Its heat for a year is equal to the burning of tons of coal amounting to 400 Plus 21 ciphers.

The Sun's Spectrum of visible light extends from 7700 Angstrom units on the red end, to 3600 Angstrom units on the violet end. An Angstrom unit is one ten-millionth of a millimeter. A millimeter is 1/25th of an inch. A wave of red light measures one 32-thousandths of an inch; of violet, one 64-thousandths. Hence the visible Spectrum consists of one octave, although 40 octaves are known to Science. The ultra-violet band extends from 3600 to 1000 Angstrom units. However, the ozone in the Earth's atmosphere cuts out all rays shorter than 2900 A.U. Tanning is nature's way of protecting the body against an excess of ultra-violet radiation.

The light of the Sun is 465,000 times brighter than the Full Moon; 900,000,000 times brighter than Venus at its brightest. In the Zenith this has been computed at 103,000 meter-candles. A meter-candle is the light received from a candle at a distance of a meter.

According to the latest astronomical computations the Sun's proper motion in orbit is approx. 200 miles per second; its apparent motion towards a point in the constellation Hercules is 12 miles per second.

Solar System Bodies: Moon.

A satellite of the Earth, which to different civilizations has also been known as Luna, Soma, Isis; the "mother of the Earth." It has given us the name for the first day of the week-Monday; also lunacy, lunatic, moonstruck.

The Moon, reflecting the light of the Sun, emits a degree of heat which can be registered by concentrating the rays on the bulb of a thermometer. It may have some slight vegetation, but because of the apparent absence of atmosphere or clouds it lacks sufficient water to support vegetation such as is on the Earth.

The period of the Moon's axial rotation is the same as its period of revolution, hence the same side of the Moon is always turned toward the Earth. That its orbit was formerly smaller and its velocity correspondingly greater is proved by comparing records of ancient eclipses to tables based on observation of its present motion. The Moon's mean distance from the Earth is 238,840 miles, or 60 times the Earth's radius. It travels a trifle faster than its diameter per hour. Nor is it entirely the nearest body to the Earth, for in part of its orbit the minor planet Hermes (disc. in 1937) approaches to a distance of only 200,000 Miles. Traveling by airplane at 200 m.p.h. one would traverse the Earth-Moon distance in 5o days; but it would take a rocket ship speed of 7 m.p.s. to get beyond the Earth's gravitational field-at which rate we could arrive in 2 days.

Lifetimes have been devoted to the study of its incredibly complex motions. Among its various perturbations are the Equation of the Center, the retrogression of the Nodes, Evection, the anomalistic period, Lunar Variation, Annual Equation, and Secular Acceleration.

Galilee, in 1610, was the first selenographer to study the Moon through a telescope. In 1647 Hevelius published a chart of the Moon's surface that was not improved upon for a century. Its phases are familiar: The crescent of the new moon, and the reverse crescent of the fourth quarter of its circuit; the gibbous phase of the second and third quarters, when more than half of the moon is light; and the Earth-shine, when the Earth reflects a dim light upon the surface of the Moon during a few days before and after the Lunation.

Because of its faster motion near perigee we are able to see 7°45' around the Eastern and Western edges. This is termed its Libration in Longitude. Because of the inclination of the plane of the Moon's orbit to that of the Earth, we are able at times to see 6°41' beyond each of the poles. This is termed Libration in Latitude. There is also a Diurnal Libration of 1° on the Eastern limb of the Moon when rising, and on the Western when setting. The net combined result is that 41% of the Moon's surface is visible all the time, with another 18% that is visible part of the time, leaving 41% that has never been seen from the Earth.

Meton discovered the recession of the Moon's node in 432 B.C. and reformed the calendar in accordance therewith. He determined that there were 235 synodic periods in 19 years, varying by i day according to the number of leap years contained in the period.

The node recesses 360° in 6793.5 days or 18 2/3 years, or roughly 1½ years to a sign.

The Draconitic period of the Moon's motion, that from node to node, is 27.2122 days.

The moon rises 50 minutes later each night.

Harvest Moon. At this season of the year the Moon's path more nearly parallels that of the Earth, hence it remains near to the horizon for several days, at the same hour. Similarly with the Hunter's Moon, which is the nearest Full Moon to September 23rd. This effect is further intensified when the descending node is at 0° Aries. For example, with the Ascending node at 0° Aries : 23° 27', Plus 5° 9', equals 28° 36'. With the Descending node at 0° Aries : 23° 27', minus 5° 9', equals 18° 18°'. The Full Moon rides low in Summer but high in Winter, thus making Winter the season of least sunlight but of most moonlight.

Moonlight contains streaks of bright rays, apparently from some special mineral that fails to absorb light, or which may have some such property as radio-activity - to conjecture on a point regarding which scientists fail to agree. The rays consist largely of shades of yellow and gray, and from certain areas a shade of green. The Earth's surface has a reflective power six times greater than that of the Moon.

The Lunar spectrum is much the same as that of the Sun, except that the light is yellower, and more diffused because of the roughness of the Moon's surface. At the quarter, the Moon's light has a brilliance of one-millionth that of the Sun; at the Full, 1/465 thousandths. However, the Moon absorbs 93% of the light it could reflect.

The Moon's aspects by Right Ascension differ some minutes from those by Geocentric Longitude.

Tropical period minus Precession from 0° Aries : 6.9 seconds per period.

The color white is often associated with the Moon to symbolize purity. That it is chemically white is due to the absence of all color. Prismatically it is the presence of all colors of the spectrum, or the three primary colors in the proportions of three parts of yellow, five of red, and eight of blue.

Solar System Bodies: Mercury.

A small planet, with pale bluish light; the planet closest to the Sun. Never more than 28 degrees from the Sun, it is rarely visible to the naked eye. The Roman god Mercury and the Greek god Hercules, the winged messenger of the Gods, were endowed with the qualities that are associated with the influence of the planet Mercury. To the Chaldeans it was Nebo, the planet of warning; also associated with Buddha, the wise.

Ancient astrologers considered the existence of a planet nearer to the Sun than Mercury, to which they gave the name Vulcan. It has not as yet been discovered by astronomers.

From a stationary point about 28° in advance of the Sun, it retrogrades to an inferior conjunction with the Sun - after which it becomes a "morning star," visible on the Eastern horizon shortly before Sunrise. From a stationary point about 20° behind the Sun, it advances by direct motion to a superior conjunction with the Sun - after which it becomes an "evening star," visible on the Western horizon shortly after Sunset.

As with the Moon, and all satellites with reference to the planet around which they revolve, Mercury always turns the same face toward the Sun, except for a libration of 23° 7' in both directions: making a 47° zone of temperate conditions, and 132° zones of perpetual heat and cold.

As seen from the Earth, Mercury presents phases, similar to those of the Moon, because of which its visible size varies from 30' to 104' -- its crescent or new moon phase occurs at its inferior conjunction; its full moon phase at its superior conjunction. Its minor elongation, about 18°, occurs 22 days before and after its inferior conjunction; its major elongation, about 28°, 36 days before and after its superior conjunction. At its maximum its visible size is 3¼ times its diameter. Two of Jupiter's moons are larger than the planet Mercury.

To locate Mercury in the evening sky, find in the ephemeris the dates of its major elongation before or after a superior conjunction, and for 10 and 5 days before and after. Transfer into hours its R.A. and declination on these five dates, and plot its course on a star map, making note its nearness to known bright stars. Tilt this map toward the celestial North pole, and assume a horizon about 23° below the Mercury position. If weather conditions permit it can be seen with the aid of a field glass - sometimes even with the naked eye.

Mercury made a transit across the face of the Sun on May 11, 1937.

Solar System bodies: Venus.

A brilliant planet reflecting a silvery-white light, it is the most brilliant object that illuminates the evening sky. The Greeks associated it with Aphrodite. To the Romans, it was known as Lucifer, when the Morning Star: and Vesper, when the Evening Star. To the Chaldeans it was Ishtar, and compared to the Sumerian virgin mother, the "Lady of Heaven," and the goddess of fertility.

Like Mercury, Venus exhibits phases, from a large twin crescent at the Inferior Conjunction, when it is closest to the Earth, and some- times visible in daylight if you know where to look for it, to a small round orb at the Superior Conjunction, when it is on the opposite side of the Sun from the Earth. After the Superior Conjunction it is an Evening Star, and thus is visible in the evening, sky after sun-down, setting later each evening until it reaches its maximum elongation of about 47° - at which time it sets about 3 hours after the Sun.

Shortly thereafter it attains to its greatest brilliancy, then grows rapidly smaller as it again comes closer behind the Sun, until at its Inferior Conjunction it becomes invisible. Thereafter it reappears on the other side of the Sun and becomes again visible as the Morning Star. Its motion as a Morning Star, as measured from the Earth, is slower because of its greater distance from the Earth: 26 million miles at the Inferior Conjunction, as compared to 160 million miles at the Superior Conjunction.

Its rotation period has never been established because of the layer of clouds in which it is perpetually enveloped. Its period has been variously estimated at from 68 hours to 225 days. Its axis is inclined to its orbit plane at an angle of 5 degrees. Its low albedo, or reflecting power (.59), is due to this constant cloud covering. The periods when it is a Morning and Evening Star are of about 10 months' duration each.

Transits over the Sun are rare and occur only when the Sun is within 1°45' of the node, with the Earth also at the node. Though infrequent, they come in pairs. The last such transits occurred in 1874 and 1882. It will not recur until June 8, 2004 and June 6, 2012. The duration of such a transit is about 8 hours.

Solar System Bodies: Earth.

The planet we inhabit. Astrologically, the Earth is the center of its universe, since one is concerned not with the position of the planets in reference to the Sun, but with the angle from which their reflected frequencies enter into the experience of those who dwell upon the Earth. When one speaks of the Sun's position he is but expressing the position of the Earth in its orbit in terms of the apparent position of the Sun. The Earth's orbit is an ellipse, of an eccentricity of about 1:60 - but which is slowly diminishing. Its longest diameter is its major axis. Its half length, or semi-axis, taken as the Mean distance from the Earth to Sun, amounts to about 92,900,000 miles. At perihelion the Earth is more than three million miles closer to the Sun than at aphelion; or about 3% of the maximum distance. The velocity of the Earth in its orbit is approximately 18.5 miles per second.

The Precession of the Equinoctial Point amounts to 360 degrees in about 24,800 years. The Earth's rotation appears to be slowing down at a rate which if continued will amount to 1 second in about 120,000 years.

The common center around which the Earth and the Moon revolve has been computed to be about 3000 miles from the Earth's center - or 1000 miles below the crust of the Earth. That this point is a variable one has been used by some as a basis for a computation based on the assumption that as this point approaches the surface of the Earth there result phenomena known as Earthquakes. The Earth curves from a straight line at the rate of about 1/9th of a degree per second. Its Diameter at the poles is 7900 m.; at the Equator, 7926 m.

The inclination of its axis to the Ecliptic, 66°33'.

Solar System Bodies: Mars. The nearest planet to the Earth, and frequently visible, it may be recognized through the distinct reddish hue of its ray. Mars was known as Ares, the god of war; and as Nimrod, the god of the chase, whose mission it was apparently to dispel terror and fear. To the Greeks, it was Pyrois, the fire. The Romans celebrated the festival of Mars in March, before an altar in the Campus Martius. From it comes our word martial, war like - as martial music. To the Chaldeans it was Nergal, called the "raging king" and the "furious one"; to the Babylonians, the god of war and pestilence, said to preside over the nether-world. For the Alchemists, it represented Iron. Mars has two satelites: Deimos, 6 miles in diameter, distant from Mars by 6.9 radii; and Phoetus, with a revolutionary period of 7h 39M. Deimos has a sidereal period of 30h 18m. Phoetus makes 1330 eclipses a year.

Solar System Bodies: Asteroids. An orbit, approximately midway between those of Mars and Jupiter, occupied by a large number of planetoids or minor planets: variously explained as fragments of a major planet broken up in some prehistoric catastrophe; or particles drawn out of the Sun which failed to coalesce into a single planet. In all there are estimated to be some 50,000 of these Asteroids, of which 1380 had been identified in 1937. As many as 5000 are estimated to have been seen, and again lost. Many of them are more readily visible than Pluto, and may have some astrological significance not as yet identified. Their average diameter is less than 100 miles.

The Astronomischer Rechen-Institut at Dahlem, near Berlin, was world headquarters for Asteroid research, and up to World War 11 published a yearly ephemeris of the larger Asteroids for the periods when they are best observed.

Statistics of the five principal Asteroids are as follows:

............Diameter..................Albedo

...Name......(miles)...Magnitude...(rel. to Sun)...Discovered

...Ceres.......480........7.4..........0.06...........1801

...Pallas......304........8.0..........0.07...........1802

...Juno........120........8.7..........0.12...........1804

...Vesta.......240........6.5..........0.26...........18O7

...Astraea................9.9.........................1845

The next five, in the order of their discovery, are Hebe (1847), Iris (1847), Flora (1847), Metis (1848), Hygeia (1849).

The orbit of 944 Hidalgo has an eccentricity of 0.65 - more elongated than some comets. At its aphelion distance (9.6 units) it extends into Saturn's orbit.

That of 1177 Gounessia, has an eccentricity of 0.006399, more circular than that of Venus, the most circular among the major planets.

That of 846 Lipperta, is almost parallel with that of the Earth, with an inclination of 0°.244 - more nearly parallel than that of Uranus 0°.77.

That of 2 Pallas has an inclination of 34°.726 - double that of Pluto's 17°.1.

Three Asteroids come closer to the Earth than do any of the major planets. They are Amor, Apollo, and Adonis. 1936 CA or Adonis was discovered in 1936 by Delporte in Belgium. Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.78, an inclination to the Ecliptic of 1°.48, and a major axis of 1.969 units. On February 7, 1936, it approached to within 1,200,000 miles of the Earth, in the sign Leo. It had reached perihelion in December 1935, at a point slightly outside Mercury's orbit, at a distance of less than half an astrom. unit. Its diameter is less than ½ mile. At aphelion it will go almost to the Jupiter orbit. Its period is about 2 years.

Another asteroid was discovered in 1940 that had approached to within 110,000 miles beyond the Moon's orbit. v. Hermes.

Solar System Bodies: Jupiter.

The largest planet in the solar family: larger in fact than all other planets combined. Yet it is exceeded in brightness by Venus, because of her greater proximity to the Earth. To the Greeks, known as Zeus; also associated with Marduk, one of the gods of the Pantheon; known to the Hindus as Brahmanaspati. Jupiter has 11 satellites. The first four were among the earliest discoveries of Galileo, and can be seen with the aid of a field glass. Statistics concerning the first five are as follows:

...................Period........Distance........Diameter

....Io.............1d.8...........262,000.........2109

....Europa.........3d.6...........................1865

....Ganymede.......7d.2...........................3273

....Callesta......16d.7.........1,000,000.........3142

....V.............11h.57m.........112,600..........100 est.

....VI.............................................100

....VII.............................................40

The dates of discovery are V, 1892; VI, 1904; VII, 1905; VIII, 1908; IX, 1914; X, 1938; XI, 1938. The orbits of the outer four are so far distant from the planet that their motion is affected by perturbations due to the Sun's attraction, to such an extent that they can hardly be said to have an orbit.

No. IX has an orbital inclination in excess of 90°, to that of Jupiter's orbit. No. VIII has an orbital eccentricity of 0.38, whereby its distance varies from 9 to 20 million miles.

Solar System bodies: Saturn.

The planet next smaller in magnitude to Jupiter, and next more remote from the Sun, is remarkable for its engirdling system of rings. It was the most remote planet known to the ancients. The surface of Saturn shows markings somewhat similar to those of Jupiter, but fainter. Spectroscopic observations have confirmed the theory that the rings are composed of a dense swarm of small solid bodies. of ten identified satellites of Saturn, the brightest is Titan. The ninth, Phobe, is fainter and more distant than any of the others. The tenth, Themis, lies between Titan and Hyperion. When the Alchemists and early Chemists used the name Saturn they referred to its association with the metal lead. Lead poisoning was once called the Saturnine colic.

Saturn was the ancient god of the seed sowing. His temple in Rome, founded in 497 B.C., was used as a state treasury. In 2I7 B.C. the worship of Saturn was conformed to that of its Greek counterpart, Cronus, son of Uranus, and god of Boundless Time and the Cycles. There was a myth that Saturn in Italy, as Cronus in Greece, had been king during an ancient golden age - hence was the founder of Italian civilization. Also associated with the Greek god Phoenon, "the cruel one," and the Assyrian god Ninib, patron of Agriculture, and one of the gods of the Pantheon. From it we have the English word Saturnian or Saturnine. The Saturnine colic was lead poisoning. Its atmosphere contains a high percentage of methane and ammonium gases, with no oxygen. For some unexplained reason it changes color from year to year.

There are 25,824 Saturn days in one Saturn year.

The Saturn rings consist of: A, the outermost ring, about 11,000 miles in width; B, the middle ring, about 18,000 miles in width; and C, the inside ring, the gauze or crepe ring, about 11,000 miles in width. Between it and the surface of the planet is a gap of about 5,000 miles. Separating A and B is the Cassini division, a dark strip some 2,300 miles in width.

Because the planet's equator is inclined about 28° to the plane of the ecliptic, the Saturn ring as seen from the Earth passes through phases: from Saturn's equinoctial point, where the rings are visible only as a thin line, to Saturn's solstices, where they lie transverse to us in a wide expanse. The edgewise view occurs in longitudes 172° and 352°; the maximum elongation, in longitudes 82° and 262°. The edgewise view was had in 1921 and 1936; the full-faced view in 1929 and 1944. As this constitutes a 15-year cycle, it is possible that there are related variations and fluctuations in the resultant astrological influences, which further research will be able to reduce to usable distinctions.

...Saturn's....................Distance.....Period...................Diam.

....Moons..............Disc. ..Thousands.....Days......Eccent........Miles

.1...Mimas.............1789.......115.........0.9......0.0190.........370

.2...Enceladus.........1789.......148.........1.4......0.0046.........460

.3...Tethys............1684.......183.......001.9......0.0000.........750

.4...Dione.............1684.......234.......002.7......0.0020.........900

.5...Rhea..............1672.......327.......004.5......0.0009........1150

.6...Titan.............1655.......759.......015.9......0.0289........3550

.7...Hyperion..........1848.......919.......021.3......0.119..........310

.8...Iapetus...........1671.....2,210.......079.3......0.029.........1100

.9...Phoebe............1898.....8,044.......550.4......0.1659.........160

10...Themis............1905.....c.800

Solar System Bodies: Uranus.

Its discovery by Sir William Herschel on March 13, 1781, added a new factor to the problems of Astrology, and incidentally widened the horizon of observation of planetary influence upon human life. Inserting the planet into the existing horoscopes, revealed that Uranus had been the previously inexplicable cause of violent dislocations, fractures, separations, mental disturbances and deaths. With its discovery there came a new interpretation to the old phrase "by visitation of God." Herschel called it Georgium Sidus, but England continues to use the name Herschel - from which derives the symbol although the rest of the world adopted the name Uranus by which Bode referred to it in 1783. Astrologers had long speculated upon its existence, referring to it as Ouranos. It is sometimes called "The cataclysmic planet."

The astronomers' symbol is one of the few cases in which astronomers and astrologers fall to employ the same symbols.

As its Equator is inclined by 82° to the plane of its orbit, the regions of perpetual day and night reach to within 8° of the Equator.

Its satellites are:

...............Disc. ..Sidereal period...Magnitude..Diam.

...Ariel.......1851.......2d 12.489h.........16......560

...Umbriel.....1851.......4d  3.460h.........16-17...430

...Titania.....1787.......8d 16.941h.........14.....1000

...Oberon......1787......13d 11.118h.........14......900 

Solar System bodies: Neptune.

Until the discovery of Pluto in 1930, Neptune was supposed to be the outermost member of the solar system. It was discovered September 23, 1846 by Galle in Berlin, in the region suggested by Leverrier of Paris; but later was identified as the "star" observed in 1795 by Lalande of Paris. Agrippa dedicated a temple to Neptune in honor of the naval victory of Actium. To the Greeks, known as Poseidon. It is a greenish disc of the magnitude of 7.7, and is distant from Earth by 30 astrom. units. Its revolutionary period is 164y.

It has one known satellite, Triton, about the size of our Moon, and 220,000 miles distant from the planet. It has a magnitude of 13. Its period is 5d, 21h, its orbit inclined to the Neptune orbit by an angle of 40°; its motion retrograde, with a recession period of 580y, or 140° direct. Inclination of Triton's orbit to Neptune's equator is 20°.

Neptune was in Virgo from 1435 to 1449; from 1600 to 1614; from 1761 to 1778; and most recently from 1921 to 1942. It was in Libra from 1450 to 1465; from 1615 to 1635; from 1779 to 1793; and 1943 to 1957.

Solar System bodies: Pluto.

The outermost planet of the solar system so far identified, was discovered in 1930. It lies 800 million miles beyond Neptune. The nearest conjunction of Neptune and Pluto occurred in 1892.. A previous exact conjunction occurred in prehistoric times, and will not recur for several thousand years, when they will remain close together for 100 years. As 3 Neptune revolutions take 494y. and 2 of Pluto 496y, an approximate conjunction occurs every 492.328 years.

Pluto was discovered by Percival Lowell, who delayed publication of the news until his birthday, March 13, 1930 - the day on which Uranus had been discovered 140 years before.

The name Pluto, beginning with P.L., the initials of the discoverer was suggested by an eleven-year-old English girl.

The size or volume of Pluto has not been ascertained, but its mass is less than that of the Earth. The extreme eccentricity of its orbit brings it at times nearer to the Sun than Neptune. There is no certainty that the orbits do not cross, in which event a collision is not impossible. Experience seems to increase the probability of the eventual discovery of other Trans-Neptune planets.

Solar Time. v. Time.

Solar Year. v. Year.

SOL-om-on. The name of the Sun in three languages: an expression of light, knowledge, understanding.

Solomon's Seal. Two interlaced triangles, the angles of which form the six-pointed star. often one of the triangles is dark and the other light, symbolizing the union of soul and body. According to occult symbology the apex of the emblem represents the human head or intelligence; the two upper outstretched points, sympathy with everything that lives; the two lower, human responsibility; the angle at the bottom, pointing earthward, procreative power - the cryptograph, in its entirety, denoting complete individuality or human entity.

Solomon's Temple. Solomon, Son of David, by Bathsheba, King of Israel in the 10th century B.C., was noted for his superior wisdom, and his great wealth. To the great temple he built at Jerusalem has been attributed many symbolic interpretations. In occult literature the human body, as developed by divine principle, is referred to as Solomon's Temple.

Solstices. The points in the Ecliptic at which the Sun is at its greatest distance north or south of the Equator, so-called because the Sun then appears to stand still. The Summer Solstice occurs when the Sun is at 0° Cancer, about June 21; the Winter Solstice, at 0° Capricorn, about December 21.

South Latitudes. Those south of the celestial equator. In utilizing the Table of Houses for South Latitudes, change the signs to their opposites: Aries becomes Libra, and so on.

Southern Signs. v. Northern Signs.

Spectroscope. A device whereby to disperse and separate a beam of radiation into its component wave lengths. Spectroscopic observation of moving bodies shows that with an approaching body there is a shift to the violet end, while with a receding body the shift is toward the red end: the angular amount of the shift proportional to the velocity of motion of the light source and inversely to the wave length and velocity of the light. This is a confirmation of the altered astrological influence resulting from motion toward or away from a gravitational center, and with or contra to the orbital motion of the controlling body.

Speculum. A table appended to a horoscope, comprising its astronomical elements: the planets' latitude, declination, Right Ascension, Ascensional Difference, Pole and Semi-arc. It is employed in the practice of directing by Primary Directions (q.v.) as taught by Ptolemy.

Sphere. A globe. Also applied to a planet's orbit.

Sphinx. The most famous sphinx in Greek mythology was that of Thebes in Boetia, mentioned by Hesiod. It was symbolic of the fixed types of the four elements: the body of a bull - Taurus; the feet and tail of a lion - Leo; the wings of the eagle - Scorpio; a human head - Aquarius. Variations are found in all parts of the ancient world, showing its art influence upon those who knew naught of its symbolic significance. of interest is the parallel found in Ezekiel's description of the Markaba. (Ez. 1:10.)

Square. n. A separation of 900 between any bodies or zodiacal points (v. aspect). Syn. quartile.

Square, vb. Moving to form an aspect, through an arc of approximately 7 degrees, according to the bodies involved, on either side of the point where their Longitudinal separation becomes exactly 90 degrees.

Standard Time. v. Time.

Star of Bethlehem. Commonly conjectured to have been the conjunction of Saturn, Jupiter and Mars which occurred about 2 B.C. It is supposed that the astrologers, the "wise men of the East," were endeavoring to locate a child born at the point in terrestrial latitude and longitude from which this triple conjunction would occur in the same celestial latitude and longitude, and in the midheaven of that particular geographical location. As this was one of the grand mutations (q.v.) it was presumed that a child born at the exact place and hour that would posit this important satellitium (q.v.) at the cusp of the Tenth House, would be marked by Destiny to become the initiator of a new epoch in world history. It may be that the legend of the manger was devised as a record of a birth, connotated to this grand conjunction in 2 B.C.

Stars. Stars were classified by the ancients as "fixed stars" to distinguish them from the "wandering" stars - which, when their orbits were discovered, became known as planets, in that they revolve in a plane. Stars have a proper motion of their own, but owing to their remoteness this motion could be measured only by observations taken over a protracted period - far in excess of a mere lifetime. There is no reason why the term should not now bc abandoned in favor of the simple designation of "star."

By some astrological authorities the stars are credited with an influence of their own, when in conjunction and parallel with a planet, either at birth or in transit. A star of the first magnitude on the Ascendant or Midheaven at birth is said to indicate that the native will become illustrious within his sphere of life - a "star" in social, political, or commercial life. The two large stars, Aldebaran and Antares, which are in the tenth degree of Gemini and Sagittarius, respectively, when directed to the angles of the horoscope, are said to produce periods of severe stress. They are deemed more powerful when in the angles.

Those who include the stars in their delineations appear to agree that the influence is entirely confined to a close conjunction with a birth planet to within from 2° to 5° in Longitude, and 1° in Latitude, and that it has no influence by aspect. Certain individual degrees-of the zodiac appear to possess specific influences, and these may have some connection with stars which tenant these degrees, even when untenanted by planets. Further confirmation of this theory is to be found in a work by Salmon, wherein he divided each sign into six Faces of 5 degrees each, "because in every sign there are various stars of differing natures." v. Degrees, Individual.

Stars visible to the unaided eye number less than five thousand. Those near Polaris can be seen only in the Northern Hemisphere, while the Southern Cross and nearby stars can be seen only from the Southern Hemisphere.

Stationary. A planet appears to be stationary in its orbit at that point, or station, from which it reverses its motion from direct to retrograde, or the reverse. The Sun and Moon are never stationary. v. Stations.

Stations. Those points in the orbit of a planet where it becomes either retrograde or direct; so termed because it remains stationary there for a few days before it changes its course. The first station is where it becomes retrograde; the second station, where it abandons retrograde and resumes direct motion. From these Stations orientality is reckoned. From apogee to the first station it is matutine, because it rises in the morning before the Sun, hence is in the first degree of orientality. From the first station to perigee, the lowest apsis, it is vespertine, because it rises in the evening before Sunset, hence is in the first degree of occidentality.

Stations of the Moon. The Moon is never retrograde, but in a different sense her first and second dichotomes are often loosely termed her first and second stations.

Stellium. v. Satellitium.

Strength of a planet. v. Dignity, accidental or essential.

Succedent Houses. Those which follow the angular houses: 2, 5, 8 and 11. v. Houses.

Sunspot Cycle. The phenomenon of Sunspot cycles is one which has increasingly engaged the atteention of astrophysicists for more than two centuries. Useful records of the sunspot cycle are available from 1610 to the present day. For a long time the cycle was said to be of a duration of 11.3 years, but more recently it has been noted that successive eleven-year cycles produce similar but opposite phenomena, and that a complete cycle is of a duration of 22.6 years. It has also been noted that while the Sun's surface is hotter at times of sunspot maxima, the Earth's land surface is cooler, apparently due to the increased cloudiness that attends the phenomena. It is also found that magnetic disturbances in the Sun - are reflected on the Earth with increased display of the aurora borealis and magnetic disturbances that interrupt telegraphic service. Economic cycles are also found to correspond with the Sunspot Cycle. Trees grow more during the years of Sunspot maxima, when ultra-violet radiation increases by as much as 30 Per cent. Some plant life grows better with an excess of ultra-violet light, while other species thrive better on an excess of infra-red rays. Ellsworth Huntingdon, of Yale University, says solar radiation affects the health and behavior of man. Harlan E. Stetson, of Massachusetts Institute of Technology, finds business activity, output of automobiles and new building construction follow the Sunspot cycle. For lack of reliable data on weather conditions, Dr. William Herschel used the price of wheat as an index on which to base his observations of this and similar cosmic cycles. Thus sciences establish the fact that man is influenced by cosmic phenomena, and the step to recognition of the validity of astrological influences has only the hurdle of prejudice to overcome before it is accorded scientific recognition.

Supercycle. A term applied by Richard and Jaggar to a cycle of 132 years, or approximately 6 sun-spot cycles.

Superior Planets. Those which lie outside of the Earth's orbit. v. Planets.

Synodical Lunation. v. Lunation.

Synthesis. The art of blending together separate influences in a nativity, and deducing a summary thereof. The ability to synthesize a nativity is the mark of an experienced astrologer.

Syzygy. Literally a yoking together. often loosely applied to any conjunction or opposition; particularly of a planet with the Sun, and close to the ecliptic whereby the Earth and the two bodies are in a straight line. In its use in connection with the calculation of Tide Tables it applies to the conjunctions and oppositions of Sun and Moon near the Node.


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